Presentation on theme: "Chapter 40 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 40Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery
2CancerWhen cells divide and reproduce abnormally and have the potential to spread throughout the body, crowding out normal cells and tissuesOne third of the cancer deaths in the United States each year can be attributed to nutrition and other lifestyle factors.
3Cancer—CauseAlgorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.
4Cancer—Pathophysiology Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.
5Cancer—Medical and Nutritional Management Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.
6Prevention Factors Energy balance and exercise Fat Protein Fiber Fruits and vegetablesChemoprevention
7Prevention Factors—cont’d AlcoholCoffee and teaArtificial sweetenersNitrates, nitrites, and nitrosaminesMethod of food preparation
8Fruits and VegetablesAppear to have a protective effect against cancerThought to be due to the phytoestrogen and phytochemical content of the plant- based diet
9FatResearch, although controversial, has shown evidence that high-fat diets are linked to an increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, lung, and prostate
10American Cancer Society’s Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention 1. Eat a variety of healthful foods, with an emphasis on plant sources.2. Adopt a physically active lifestyle.3. Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight throughout life.4. Limit consumption of alcoholic beverages.
11Metabolic agents and cytokine blockers Prokinetic drugs Pharmacological Agents for Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome and Weight Loss ManagementAppetite stimulantsMetabolic agents and cytokine blockersProkinetic drugsAnabolic agents
12Factors That Affect Appetite Reference: American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective, Washington, DC, 1997, AICR.
13Nutritional Implications of Cancer Therapy Chemotherapy—Taste abnormalities, diarrhea, constipationRadiation therapy—Fatigue, loss of appetite, skin changesSurgery—Fatigue, pain, loss of appetiteImmunotherapy—Flulike symptoms, decreased food intake
14Nutritional Implications of Cancer Therapy—cont’d Bone marrow transplant—Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, xerostomia, dysgeusiaSevere oral muscositisGraft versus host disease (GVHD)Veno-occlusive disease (VOD)
15Marrow Transplantation—Cause Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.
16Marrow Transplantation—Pathophysiology Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.
17Marrow Transplantation— Medical and Nutritional Management Algorithm content developed by John Anderson, PhD, and Sanford C. Garner, PhD, 2000.
18Severe Oral Mucositis Following Marrow Transplantation
19Guidelines for Oral Feeding During Antitumor Therapy
20Guidelines for Oral Feeding During Antitumor Therapy —cont’d
21Commonly Used Complementary and Alternative Therapies Macrobiotic dietVegetarian dietGerson therapyKelley/Gonzales regimenJuice therapiesShark cartilageDHEAEnzymesOxymedicineCoenzyme Q10
22Commonly Used Complementary and Alternative Therapies—cont’d Black cohoshEchinaceaFlaxseedGingerIscadorMilk thistlePC-SPECSSaw palmettoSoy and soy foodsTeas
23Nutrition in the Etiology of Cancer Epidemiologic research has evaluated the role of diet in the etiology of cancer in different population groups.Diets contain inhibitors and enhancers of carcinogenesis.Laboratory studies have served as models to test the effect of food and nutrition on cancer development.