Presentation on theme: "Transplantation Definition: to transfer (an organ or tissue) from one part or individual to another (Merriam-Webster) May take place between different."— Presentation transcript:
Transplantation Definition: to transfer (an organ or tissue) from one part or individual to another (Merriam-Webster) May take place between different parts of the same organism (autografting), different organisms of the same species (allografting), or even different species (xenografting)
The Basics Tissue from another source is grafted into a host The host either recognizes the graft as self and accepts it, or recognizes it non-self and an immune response develops The immune response destroys the graft and local vascular tissue (rejection) http://www.novartis-transplant.com/medpro/ symposia/immunology_of_TX.html
Autografting An example of graft acceptance The transfer of self tissue from one body site to another in the same individual Due to the genetic homology of the tissue, the immune system does not respond to it Many uses: Skin grafts Bone marrow transplantation Stem cell transplantation Synthetic implantation
Rejection When the immune system of the host detects foreign graft tissue, it launches an attack, resulting in tissue rejection Two Stages Sensitization Stage Effector Stage Three Clinical Manifestations (more on this later) Hyperacute Acute Chronic
Stage 1 – Sensitization Stage Antigen recognition by T-cells triggers lymphocyte proliferation ‘Antigen’ – portions of the graft’s HLA complex (MHC) are processed and presented Minor histocompatibility complexes also play a role – they don’t need to match exactly, but multiple mismatches can trigger rejection Important: major HCs can be recognized directly by T-cells, minor HCs must be processed and presented by APCs
Stage 2 – Effector Stage The host immune system attacks the graft, destroying it with four methods (first two most important): CTL-mediated cytotoxicity Delayed-type hypersensitivity Antibody-dependent cell- mediated cytotoxicity Complement-mediated lysis
Clinical Transplantation Many human diseases and disorders are caused by defects in organs and tissue Transplanted organs can replace organs that are defective or damaged by disease. Improved surgical technique has made many different types of tissue grafting possible
Milestones in Transplantation 1682(!) – bone from a dog is used to repair a human skull 1881 – earliest skin grafts (some using frog skin) 1930 – Karl Landsteiner awarded Nobel Prize for discovery of ABO blood groups 1945 – P.B. Medawar publishes a paper linking graft rejection and the immune system 1954 – first successful kidney transplant between identical twins 1967 - first successful heart transplant 1990 – first living-donor lung transplant 1992 – a patient receives a baboon liver and survives for two months 1995 – An AIDS patient receives a bone marrow transplant from a chimpanzee 2002 – first liver transplant (between identical twins) performed without immunosuppresion
Hyperacute rejection Takes place within 24 hours of transplantation Serum antibodies react to foreign MHC, triggering the complement system The inrush of neutrophils and the inflammation causes clot formation in the blood vessels The graft dies without being vascularized But where do those serum antibodies come from?
Acute rejection A two-stage process A good old fashioned immune response Within two weeks of transplantation, macrophages and lymphocytes swarm the tissue, triggering cytotoxicity, complement activation, and graft cell lysis The two week delay is indicative of the T H activation time
Chronic Rejection Even if a graft escapes an immediate rejection responses, it can undergo rejection years later Tissue typing and immunosuppressive drugs decrease the likelihood of chronic rejection, but they have a long way to go If the rejection cannot be managed, another transplant may be necessary Of course, due to the memory and specificity of the immune system, subsequent rejections occur even more quickly and vigorously
Zones of Immunological Privilege Transplants into zones of immunological privilege have proven highly successful For example, since there are few blood vessels in the cornea, there is a very low rate (about 20%) of corneal graft rejection There has even been some success transplanting fetal pig neural tissue into the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients
Graft-versus-host disease Lymphocytes from the donor are carried by the organ into the body of the graft recipient If the recipient is immunocompromised, the foreign lymphocytes can attack his tissue, resulting in skin rashes, intestinal problems, organ failure, and death Liver, spleen, and bone marrow transplants all carry the risk of GVHD
Barriers to Medical Transplant Difficulties posed by the immune system The necessity of MHC matching makes it harder to find compatible organs Repeat graft recipients reject new organs faster and more vigorously with each new transplant Shortage of available organs Many transplantable organs can only be taken from cadavers Organs must also be matched for size and condition Solutions?
Immunosuppressive Therapy Non-specific Drugs that interfere with the immune response This attenuates the rejection of donor tissue Decreased immune responsiveness increases susceptibility to pathogens and cancers Current therapies involve using multiple drugs in low doses: the goal of this is to minimize side effects while still preventing rejection Many immunosuppressives are derived from fungi…why? Cyclosporin A
Immunosuppressive Therapy Specific Treatments that produce an immunodeficiency specific to the donor alloantigens – an artificial hole in the repertoire Monoclonal antibodies can block T-cell activation and binding, extending the life of transplanted organs Soluble fusion proteins can be made with block costimulatory signals necessary for T-cell activation
Xenotransplantation Xenotransplantation – the transfer of tissue from one species to another Usually refers to the implantation of animal tissue in humans Many different types of tissue may be transplanted Using animals for organs would provide a vast new source of organs for humans
Clinical Aspects Attempts at kidney, heart, liver, and bone marrow transplants from primates into humans have met with little success The earliest xenotransplantation of a chimpanzee kidney into a human took place in 1964 In 1993, T.E. Starzl performed two liver transplants from baboons into patients suffering from liver failure (both died within 70 days) Pigs have also been considered as a source of organs, especially kidneys
Problems with Xenotransplantation Even with immunosuppression, the foreignness of animal tissue provokes a vigorous immune response Viruses and diseases which have no ill effects in animals have the potential to cause serious illness in humans Animal retroviruses may combine with human variants, producing dangerous new pathogens
Solutions? Animals bred with human histocompatibility genes (transgenic animals) would have organs immunologically indistinguishable from human organs Other transgenic organs might produce proteins that prevent destruction by the complement system
Summary Graft antigens (in the form of MHC and bound ligands) are recognized by host lymphocytes (most importantly T H -cells) The resulting cell-mediated response destroys the graft tissue, which undergoes necrosis In future transplants, serum antibodies may trigger antibody-mediated (hyperacute) rejection – specificity and memory
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