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Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood

2 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Functions Transportation: water, gases, nutrients, hormones, enzymes, electrolytes, wastes, heat Regulation: pH, temperature, water balance Protection: blood clotting, defense: phagocytic cells, interferons, complement

3 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Composition A connective tissue with components readily seen when blood is centrifuged:  Plasma(~55%): soluble materials (mostly water); lighter so at top of tube  Formed elements (~45%): cells (heavier so at bottom of tube) Mostly red blood cells (RBCs)  Percent of blood occupied by RBCs = hematocrit (Hct)  Normal hematocrit value: 42-47%  Females: 38 to 46%; males: 40 to 54% Buffy coat: site of white blood cells (WBCs), platelets

4 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Composition

5 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Composition

6 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Plasma: Liquid Portion of Blood Water: 91.5% Plasma proteins: 7%  Albumin (54%): function in osmosis; carriers  Globulins (38%): serve as antibodies  Fibrinogen (7%): important in clotting Other: 1.5%  Electrolytes, nutrients, gases, hormones, vitamins, waste products

7 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Formed Elements I. Red Blood Cells (RBCs) II. White blood cells (WBCs) A.Granular leukocytes 1.Neutrophils 2.Eosinophils 3.Basophils B.Agranular leukocytes 1.Lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells 2.Monocytes III Platelets

8 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Formation of Blood Cells Called hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis Occurs throughout life  In response to specific hormones, stem cells undergo a series of changes to form blood cells Pluripotent stem cells in red marrow   Lymphoid stem cells  lymphocytes (in lymphatic tissues)  Myeloid stem cells  all other WBCs, all RBCs, and platelets (in red bone marrow)

9 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Formation of Blood Cells

10 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Formation of Blood Cells

11 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Erythrocytes (RBCs) Hemoglobin (red pigment)  Carries 98.5% of O 2 and 23% of CO 2 RBC count: about 5 million/µl  Male: 5.4 million cells/µl; female: 4.8 million/µl St ructure of mature RBC  No nucleus/DNA so RBCs live only 3 to 4 mos  Lack of nucleus causes biconcave disc shape with extensive plasma membrane Provides for maximal gas exchange Is flexible for passing through capillaries

12 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. RBC Recycling Cleared by macrophages (liver and spleen) Recycled components  Globin  amino acids recycled to form proteins  Heme broken down into: Fe  Carried in blood by transferrin (“protein escort” of Fe)  Recycled in bone marrow for forming synthesis of new hemoglobin; proteins and vitamin B 12 required also Non-Fe portion of heme  biliverdin  bilirubin  Bilirubin to liver  bile  helps absorb fats  Intestinal bacteria convert bilirubin into other chemicals that exit in feces (stercobilin) or urine (urobilin)

13 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow 1 Globin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Heme 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Heme 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Heme 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Liver Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme Fe 3+ 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Circulation for about 120 days Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme Fe 3+ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Circulation for about 120 days Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme Biliverdin Bilirubin Fe 3+ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Circulation for about 120 days Bilirubin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme Biliverdin Bilirubin Fe 3+ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Stercobilin Bilirubin Urobilinogen Feces Small intestine Circulation for about 120 days Bacteria Bilirubin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Heme Biliverdin Bilirubin Fe 3+ 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Urine Stercobilin Bilirubin Urobilinogen Feces Small intestine Circulation for about 120 days Bacteria Bilirubin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow Kidney Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Urobilin Heme Biliverdin Bilirubin Fe 3+ 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Globin Urine Stercobilin Bilirubin Urobilinogen Feces Large intestine Small intestine Circulation for about 120 days Bacteria Bilirubin Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Transferrin Fe 3+ Transferrin Liver + Globin + Vitamin B 12 + Erythopoietin Key: in blood in bile Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow Kidney Macrophage in spleen, liver, or red bone marrow Ferritin Urobilin Heme Biliverdin Bilirubin Fe 3+ 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Formation and Destruction of RBC’s

14 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. RBC Synthesis: Erythropoiesis Develop from myeloid stem cells in red marrow Cells lose nucleus; are then released into bloodstream as reticulocytes  These almost-mature RBCs develop into erythrocytes after 1-2 days in bloodstream  High reticulocyte count (> normal range of 0.5% to 1.5% as more of these circulate in bloodstream) indicates high rate of RBC formation

15 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. RBC Synthesis: Erythropoiesis Production and destruction: normally balanced  Stimulus for erythropoiesis is low O 2 delivery (hypoxia) in blood passing to kidneys   Kidneys release erythropoietin release (EPO)   Stimulates erythropoiesis in red marrow  increased O 2 delivery in blood (negative feedback mechanism)

16 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. RBC Synthesis: Erythropoiesis Signs of lower-than-normal RBC count  changes in skin, mucous membranes, and finger nail beds  Cyanosis: bluish color  Anemia: pale color

17 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Regulation of Erythropoiesis

18 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. White Blood Cells (WBCs or Leukocytes) Appear white because lack hemoglobin Normal WBC count: 5,000-10,000/µl  WBC count usually increases in infection Two major classes based on presence or absence of granules (vesicles) in them]  Granular: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Neutrophils usually make up 2/3 of all WBCs  Agranular: lymphocytes, monocytes Major function: defense against  Infection and inflammation  Antigen-antibody (allergic) reactions

19 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. White Blood Cell Functions Neutrophils: first responders to infection  Phagocytosis  Release bacteria-destroying enzyme lysozyme Monocytes  macrophages (“big eaters”)  Known as wandering macrophages Eosinophils  Phagocytose antibody-antigen complexes  Help suppress inflammation of allergic reactions  Respond to parasitic infections

20 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. White Blood Cell Functions Basophils  Intensify inflammatory responses and allergic reactions  Release chemicals that dilate blood vessels: histamine and serotonin; also heparin (anticoagulant)

21 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. White Blood Cell Functions Lymphocytes  Three types of lymphocytes T cells B cells Natural killer (NK) cells  Play major roles in immune responses B lymphocytes respond to foreign substances called antigens and differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies. Antibodies attach to and inactivate the antigens. T lymphocytes directly attack microbes.

22 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. White Blood Cell Functions Major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens  Proteins protruding from plasma membrane of WBCs (and most other body cells)  Called “self-identity markers” Unique for each person (except for identical twins) An incompatible tissue or organ transplant is rejected due to difference in donor and recipient MHC antigens MHC antigens are used to “type tissues” to check for compatibility and reduce risk of rejection

23 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. WBC Life Span WBCs: 5000-10,000 WBCs/µl blood RBCs outnumber WBCs about 700:1 Life span: typically a few hours to days Abnormal WBC counts  Leukocytosis: high WBC count in response to infection, exercise, surgery  Leukopenia: low WBC count Differential WBC count: measures % of WBCs made up of each of the 5 types

24 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Platelets Myeloid stem cells  megakaryocytes  2000–3000 fragments = platelets Normal count: 150,000-400,000/µl blood Functions  Plug damaged blood vessels  Promote blood clotting Life span 5–9 days

25 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hemostasis: “Blood Standing Still” Sequence of events to avoid hemorrhage 1.Vascular spasm  Response to damage  Quick reduction of blood loss 2.Platelet plug formation  Platelets become sticky when contact damaged vessel wall 3.Blood clotting (coagulation)  Series of chemical reactions involving clotting factors   

26 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Blood Clotting (Coagulation) Extrinsic pathway  Tissue factor(TF) from damaged cells 1  2  3 Intrinsic Pathway  Materials “intrinsic” to blood  1  2  3 Common pathway: 3 major steps 1.Prothrombinase  2.Prothrombin  thrombin 3.Fibrinogen  fibrin  clot Ca ++ plays important role in many steps

27 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Clot Retraction and Vessel Repair Clot plugs ruptured area Gradually contracts (retraction)  Pulls sides of wound together Repair  Fibroblasts replace connective tissue  Epithelial cells repair lining

28 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hemostatic Control Mechanisms Fibrinolysis: breakdown of clots by plasmin  Inactivated plasminogen   Activated (by tPA)  plasmin Inappropriate (unneeded) clots  Clots can be triggered by roughness on vessel wall = thrombosis  Loose (on-the-move) clot = embolism Anticoagulants: decrease clot formation  Heparin  Warfarin (Coumadin)

29 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Tissue trauma Tissue factor (TF) Blood trauma Damaged endothelial cells expose collagen fibers (a) Extrinsic pathway (b) Intrinsic pathway Activated XII Ca 2+ Damaged platelets Ca 2+ Platelet phospholipids Activated X Activated platelets Activated X PROTHROMBINASE Ca 2+ V V 1 Tissue trauma Tissue factor (TF) Blood trauma Damaged endothelial cells expose collagen fibers (a) Extrinsic pathway (b) Intrinsic pathway Activated XII Ca 2+ Damaged platelets Ca 2+ Platelet phospholipids Activated X Activated platelets Activated X PROTHROMBINASE Ca 2+ V Prothrombin (II) Ca 2+ THROMBIN (c) Common pathway V 1 2 + + Tissue trauma Tissue factor (TF) Blood trauma Damaged endothelial cells expose collagen fibers (a) Extrinsic pathway (b) Intrinsic pathway Activated XII Ca 2+ Damaged platelets Ca 2+ Platelet phospholipids Activated X Activated platelets Activated X PROTHROMBINASE Ca 2+ V Prothrombin (II) Ca 2+ THROMBIN Ca 2+ Loose fibrin threads STRENGTHENED FIBRIN THREADS Activated XIII Fibrinogen (I) XIII (c) Common pathway V 1 2 3 + + Stages of Clotting

30 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Blood Groups and Blood Types RBCs have antigens (agglutinogens) on their surfaces Each blood group consists of two or more different blood types  There are > 24 blood groups  Two examples: ABO group has types A, B, AB, O Rh group has type Rh positive (Rh + ), Rh negative (Rh – ) Blood types in each person are determined by genetics

31 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ABO Group Two types of antigens on RBCs: A or B  Type A has only A antigen  Type B has only B antigen  Type AB has both A and B antigens  Type O has neither A nor B antigen Most common types in US: type O and A Typically blood has antibodies in plasma  These can react with antigens  Two types: anti-A antibody or anti-B antibody  Blood lacks antibodies against own antigens Type A blood has anti-B antibodies (not anti-A) Type AB blood has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

32 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ABO Group

33 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rh Blood Group Name Rh: antigen found in rhesus monkey Rh blood types  If RBCs have Rh antigen: Rh +  If RBCs lack Rh antigen: Rh – Rh + blood type in 85-100% of U.S. population Normally neither Rh + nor Rh – has anti-Rh antibodies Antibodies develop in Rh - persons after first exposure to Rh + blood in transfusion (or pregnancy  hemolytic disease of newborn)

34 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Transfusions If mismatched blood (“wrong blood type”) given, antibodies bind to antigens on RBCs  hemolyze RBCs Type AB called “universal recipients” because have no anti-A or anti-B antibodies so can receive any ABO type blood Type O called “universal donors” because have neither A nor B antigen on RBCs so can donate to any ABO type  Misleading because of many other blood groups that must be matched

35 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. End of Chapter 14 Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein.


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