Bone Structure Long bone External structure Epiphysis, the portion of the bone that interacts with other bones Articular cartilage, protective layer of hyaline cartilage coating the epiphysis
Hyaline cartilage, most common type of cartilage, looks like “milky glass” Diaphysis, long narrow portion between epiphyses, AKA: shaft
Periosteum, any part of the bone not covered by articular cartilage is protected by this tough fibrous membrane. It is a vascular tissue, functions in bone repair.
Internal structure Tissue types: Compact bone, dense strong and resistant to bending
Spongy bone, branching bony plates that create irregular spaces, strong and durable because they allow for some compression.
Tissue location Compact bone makes up the wall of the diaphysis
Spongy bone makes up the bulk of the epiphysis especially in regions that are subject to compression, (weight bearing joints)
Description: the diaphysis is a semi-rigid hollow structure Medullary cavity, hollow tube runs from end to end in the open space of the diaphysis
Endosteum, lines the cavity Marrow, specialized, highly functional, soft CT, inside the cavity
Microscopic Structure: Osteocyte, individual compact bone cell, located in…
Lacunae, chambers arranged in concentric circles around… Osteonic canal, pathway for arteries, veins, and nerves through the bone
Canaliculus, smaller canals running perpendicular to the osteonic canal, connecting lacunae
Haversian System: (aka Osteon) the whole system of concentric circles and the canals associated with them
Volkmann’s canals, contain larger vessels and nerves allowing for communication of entire Haversian systems, the medullary canal, and the bone surface.
Spongy bone avoids this whole process, thin bony plates allow for nourishment by diffusion.