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Hematopoietic Stem Cells A hematopoietic stem cell is a cell isolated from the blood or bone marrow that can renew itself, can differentiate to a variety.

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Presentation on theme: "Hematopoietic Stem Cells A hematopoietic stem cell is a cell isolated from the blood or bone marrow that can renew itself, can differentiate to a variety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hematopoietic Stem Cells A hematopoietic stem cell is a cell isolated from the blood or bone marrow that can renew itself, can differentiate to a variety of specialized cells, can mobilize out of the bone marrow into circulating blood, and can undergo programmed cell death, called apoptosis—a process by which cells that are detrimental or unneeded self-destruct. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)

2 Umbilical Stem Cells Stem cell transplants have been used since the 1960’s to treat a variety of diseases. In 1988 cord blood stem cells were used for the first time in hematopoietic (blood) stem cell transplantation. Umbilical cord blood stem cells have now been used in over 3,500 transplants worldwide as a valuable alternative to traditional sources of hematopoietic stem cells. (http://www.corcell.com)

3 Umbilical Stem Cells Utilizing the process of stem cell banking, cord blood stem cells also show great promise for potential future applications including treatment and repair of non- hematopoietic tissues, gene therapies, mini-transplants, among others. (http://www.corcell.com)

4 Collecting Umbilical Cells Collect mother’s blood for tests Prep umbilical site Collect cord blood (up to 250 ml) Prepare collection for shipment Medical currier to deliver to storage unit Test cord blood and mother's blood for infections Store cord blood in 25 ml volumes on liquid nitrogen (http://www.corcell.com )

5 Umbilical Stem Cells Harvesting umbilical cord blood poses no risk to the mother or child, whereas a bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell donor must undergo invasive medical procedures and is exposed to the risk of infection. Further, studies on umbilical cord blood transplants are resulting in sustained engraftment similar to earlier results achieved with bone marrow. Umbilical cord blood is cryogenically stored and immediately available. (http://www.corcell.com)

6 Umbilical Stem Cells Umbilical cord blood stem cell research has shown potential for future treatment in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, heart attack, stroke, and spinal cord injuries. Cord blood stem cells have already been effectively used in the treatment of more than 70 malignant and non-malignant diseases, including sickle cell, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, other forms of cancer, life threatening anemias, and auto-immune diseases to name a few.70 malignant and non-malignant diseases (http://www.corcell.com)

7 Umbilical Stem Cells Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are more primitive than those found in bone marrow and therefore carry a lower incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), making it possible to perform transplants with less than perfect matches of marrow type and potentially decreasing the morbidity and mortality overall of the recipients. Cord blood technologies now allow for the multiplication of umbilical cord blood stem cells through ex vivo expansion. Umbilical cord blood has been used as a replacement source of hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of human disease since (http://www.corcell.com)

8 Umbilical Stem Cells Cord blood stem cells have already been effectively used in the treatment of more than 70 malignant and non-malignant diseases, including sickle cell, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, other forms of cancer, life threatening anemias, and auto-immune diseases to name a few.70 malignant and non-malignant diseases Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are more primitive than those found in bone marrow and therefore carry a lower incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), making it possible to perform transplants with less than perfect matches of marrow type and potentially decreasing the morbidity and mortality overall of the recipients. (http://www.corcell.com)

9 Diseases Treated With Cord Stem Cells Acute leukemia’s Chronic leukemia’s Anemia’s Phagocytic disorders Genetic metabolic diseases Genetic immune system disorders

10 Umbilical Stem Cells There have been suggestions that umbilical cord blood contains stem cells that have the capability of developing cells of multiple germ layers (multipotent) or even all germ layers, e.g., endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm (pluripotent). To date, there is no published scientific evidence to support this claim. While umbilical cord blood represents a valuable resource for HSCs, research data have not conclusively shown qualitative differences in the differentiated cells produced between this source of HSCs and peripheral blood and bone marrow. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)

11 Bone Marrow Stem Cells The classic source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is bone marrow. For more than 40 years, doctors performed bone marrow transplants by anesthetizing the stem cell donor, puncturing a bone—typically a hipbone—and drawing out the bone marrow cells with a syringe. About 1 in every 100,000 cells in the marrow is a long-term, blood-forming stem cell; other cells present include stromal cells, stromal stem cells, blood progenitor cells, and mature and maturing white and red blood cells. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)

12 Bone Marrow Transplants Stem cells are identified by surface markers They are injected into a recipient who has been irradiated to destroy their blood cells The stem cells will restore all blood cell types in the recipient

13 Peripheral Stem Cells It has been known for decades that a small number of stem and progenitor cells circulate in the bloodstream In the past 10 years, researchers have found that they can coax the cells to migrate from marrow to blood in greater numbers by injecting the donor with a cytokine, such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF). The donor is injected with GCSF a few days before the cell harvest. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)

14 Peripheral Stem Cells To collect the cells, doctors insert an intravenous tube into the donor's vein and pass his blood through a filtering system that pulls out CD34+ white blood cells and returns the red blood cells to the donor. Of the cells collected, just 5 to 20 percent will be true HSCs. Thus, when medical researchers commonly refer to peripherally harvested "stem cells," this is something of a misnomer. As is true for bone marrow, the CD34+ cells are a mixture of stem cells, progenitors, and white blood cells of various degrees of maturity. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp

15 Peripheral Stem Cells In the past few years, most “bone marrow transplants” actually used peripheral cells. The peripherally harvested cells contain twice as many HSCs as stem cells taken from bone marrow and engraft more quickly. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)


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