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Introducing stem cells. This presentation is intended as a flexible tool for scientists, science communicators and educators. Not all the slides will.

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Presentation on theme: "Introducing stem cells. This presentation is intended as a flexible tool for scientists, science communicators and educators. Not all the slides will."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introducing stem cells

2 This presentation is intended as a flexible tool for scientists, science communicators and educators. Not all the slides will be useful for any one occasion. Choose the ones most suitable for your audience, mix them with your own slides, or just use the diagrams. Dear speaker… Presenter’s notes Each slide in the Basics and Cloning sections includes notes that give a simple, jargon- free explanation of the key points. The more detailed slides in the last section have much briefer notes and assume some knowledge of stem cell science. Further information and resources The 15-minute film, “A Stem Cell Story” provides an excellent introduction to stem cells and covers many of the concepts presented here. See Got a question or a comment? Contact us at Contents  Stem cell biology basics: For school students aged 16+, or adult public with little or no scientific knowledge  Cloning: For adult public with little or no scientific knowledge; initial slides also suitable for students aged 16+  Stem cell biology in more detail: For informed non-specialist audiences, e.g. clinicians, scientists working in fields other than stem cell biology.

3 Stem cell biology basics

4 A life story…

5 stem cell What is a stem cell? stem cell SELF-RENEWAL (copying) specialized cell e.g. muscle cell, nerve cell DIFFERENTIATION (specializing)

6 What is a stem cell? Identical stem cells Stem cell SELF-RENEWAL (copying) Stem cell Specialized cells DIFFERENTIATION (specializing)

7 1 stem cell Self renewal - maintains the stem cell pool 4 specialized cells Differentiation - replaces dead or damaged cells throughout your life Why self-renew AND differentiate? 1 stem cell

8 Where are stem cells found? embryonic stem cells blastocyst - a very early embryo tissue stem cells fetus, baby and throughout life

9 Types of stem cell: 1) Embryonic stem cells

10 Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Where we find them embryonic stem cells taken from the inner cell mass culture in the lab to grow more cells fluid with nutrients

11 Embryonic stem (ES) cells: What they can do embryonic stem cells PLURIPOTENT all possible types of specialized cells differentiation

12 neurons grow under conditions B Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges embryonic stem cells skin grow under conditions A blood grow under conditions C liver grow under conditions D ?

13 Types of stem cell: 2) Tissue stem cells

14 Tissue stem cells: Where we find them muscles skin surface of the eye brain breast intestines (gut) bone marrow testicles

15 Tissue stem cells: What they can do MULTIPOTENT blood stem cell found in bone marrow differentiation only specialized types of blood cell: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

16 Types of stem cell: 3)Induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells

17 Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) cell from the body ‘genetic reprogramming’ = add certain genes to the cell induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell Advantage: no need for embryos! all possible types of specialized cells culture iPS cells in the lab differentiation

18 Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) cell from the body (skin) genetic reprogramming pluripotent stem cell (iPS) differentiation

19 Stem cell jargon Potency A measure of how many types of specialized cell a stem cell can make Pluripotent Can make all types of specialized cells in the body Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent Multipotent Can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all types Tissue stem cells are multipotent

20 Cloning

21 There are two VERY different types of cloning: Reproductive cloning Use to make two identical individuals Very difficult to do Illegal to do on humans Molecular cloning Use to study what a gene does Routine in the biology labs gene 1 gene 2

22 Reproductive cloning remove nucleus and take the rest of the cell egg take the nucleus (containing DNA) cell from the body Clone identical to the individual that gave the nucleus Dolly the sheep

23 Molecular cloning: Principles gene 1 gene 2 2) Make a new piece of DNA gene 1 gene 2 1) Take DNA out of the nucleus cell 1cell 2 gene 1 gene 2 3) Put new DNA into a test cell and grow copies gene 1 cell divides Daughter cells contain same DNA: Genes 1 and 2 have been cloned gene 2 insert new DNA

24 Molecular cloning: Applications Normal mouse embryo gene A missing remove a gene to see if anything works differently Loss of function gene is involved in giving the eye its colour eye Reporter gene add a gene that shows us when another gene is working gene is active in blue areas only Lineage tracing mark a group of cells to see where their daughter cells end up gene is passed on to cells all over the body

25 Stem cell biology in more detail

26 Tissue stem cell types and hierarchies

27 Tissue stem cells: Principles of renewing tissues Stem cell committed progenitors: - “transient amplifying cells” - multipotent - divide rapidly - no self-renewal stem cell: - self renew - divide rarely - high potency - rare specialized cells: - work - no division

28 Tissue stem cells: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) HSC committed progenitors neutrophil NK cell erythrocytes dendritic cell platelets megakaryocyte macrophage eosinophil basophil B cell T cell specialized cells bone marrow

29 Tissue stem cells: Neural stem cells (NSCs) NSC brain committed progenitors specialized cells Neurons Interneurons Oligodendrocytes Type 2 Astrocytes Type 1 Astrocytes

30 Tissue stem cells: Gut stem cells (GSCs) GSC Small intestine committed progenitors Paneth cells Columnar cells Goblet cells Endocrine cells specialized cells

31 Tissue stem cells: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) MSC bone marrow committed progenitors Bone (osteoblasts) Cartilage (chondrocytes) Fat (adipocytes) specialized cells

32 Stem cells at home: The stem cell niche

33 Stem cell niches Direct contact Soluble factors Intermediate cell stem cell niche Niche Microenvironment around stem cells that provides support and signals regulating self-renewal and differentiation

34 Credits Picture credits Many thanks to the following people for permission to reproduce images: Slide 17, iPS cells: Keisuke Kaji, University of Edinburgh, UK Slide 27, blood cell diagrams: Jonas Larsson, Lund Univeristy, Sweden Slide 29, intestinal cell diagrams: Hans Clevers and Nick Barker, Hubrecht Institute, The Netherlands Should you wish to re-use any of the images listed above, please contact the owner. All other images in this presentation can be re-used freely. Acknowledgements Particular thanks to Dr Christele Gonneau for creating these slides and working tirelessly to help ensure the notes are correct. Thanks also to Freddy Radtke of EPFL, Switzerland, whose slide we copied to make slide 27 on tissue stem cells.


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