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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Bones and Skeletal.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Bones and Skeletal."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues: Part A

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Moving on to chapter 11 after chapter 6 Begin on p. 389 Neurons. Thru p. 414 Stop at Neurotransmitters and their receptors This is online as 11b. We will cover other neurotransmitters and the rest of chapter 11 at a later date, time permitting. The study guide for chapter 5 is now available 6 will follow soon.

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the Skeleton Two main groups, by location Axial skeleton (brown) Appendicular skeleton (yellow)

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.1 Cartilage in external ear Cartilages in nose Articular Cartilage of a joint Costal cartilage Cartilage in Intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis Articular cartilage of a joint Meniscus

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Bones by Shape Long bones Longer than they are wide Short bones Cube-shaped bones (in wrist and ankle) Sesamoid bones (within tendons, e.g., patella)

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Bones by Shape Flat bones Thin, flat, slightly curved Irregular bones Complicated shapes

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.2

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Bones Support For the body and soft organs Protection For brain, spinal cord, and vital organs Movement Levers for muscle action

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Bones Storage Minerals (calcium and phosphorus) and growth factors Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in marrow cavities Triglyceride (energy) storage in bone cavities

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Markings Bulges, depressions, and holes serve as Sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons Joint surfaces Conduits for blood vessels and nerves

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Textures Compact bone Dense outer layer Spongy (cancellous) bone Honeycomb of trabeculae

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis (shaft) Compact bone collar surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity Medullary cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow)

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Long Bone Epiphyses Expanded ends Spongy bone interior Epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate) Articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.3a-b Proximal epiphysis (b) (a) Epiphyseal line Articular cartilage Periosteum Spongy bone Compact bone Medullary cavity (lined by endosteum) Compact bone Diaphysis Distal epiphysis

15 Figure 8.1

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Membranes of Bone Periosteum Outer fibrous layer Inner osteogenic layer Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) Osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells) Osteogenic cells (stem cells) Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via nutrient foramina Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Membranes of Bone Endosteum Delicate membrane on internal surfaces of bone Also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.3c (c) Yellow bone marrow Endosteum Compact bone Periosteum Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Nutrient arteries

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones Periosteum-covers compact bone on the outside Endosteum-covers spongy bone within Spongy bone called diploë in flat bones Bone marrow between the trabeculae

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.5 Compact bone Trabeculae Spongy bone (diploë)

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow) Red marrow cavities of adults Trabecular cavities of the heads of the femur and humerus Trabecular cavities of the diploë of flat bones Red marrow of newborn infants Medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Cells of bones Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells Stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.4a-b (a) Osteogenic cell(b) Osteoblast Stem cell Matrix-synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Cells of bone Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoclasts Cells that break down (resorb) bone matrix

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.4c-d (c) Osteocyte Mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix (d) Osteoclast Bone-resorbing cell

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Compact Bone Haversian system, or osteon — structural unit Lamellae Weight-bearing Column-like matrix tubes Central (Haversian) canal Contains blood vessels and nerves

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.6 Structures in the central canal Artery with capillaries Vein Nerve fiber Lamellae Collagen fibers run in different directions Twisting force

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Compact Bone Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals At right angles to the central canal Connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal Lacunae — small cavities that contain osteocytes Canaliculi — hair-like canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.7a-c Endosteum lining bony canals and covering trabeculae Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Periosteal blood vessel Periosteum Lacuna (with osteocyte) (a) (b)(c) Lacunae Lamellae Nerve Vein Artery Canaliculi Osteocyte in a lacuna Circumferential lamellae Osteon (Haversian system) Central (Haversian) canal Central canal Interstitial lamellae Lamellae Compact bone Spongy bone

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.3b (b) Lacunae Lamellae Nerve Vein Artery Canaliculus Osteocyte in a lacuna Central canal

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Spongy Bone Trabeculae Align along lines of stress No osteons Contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi Capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts Osteoid — organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts Ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins) Collagen fibers Provide tensile strength and flexibility

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Composition of Bone: Inorganic Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts) 65% of bone by mass Mainly calcium phosphate crystals Responsible for hardness and resistance to compression

34 Figure 8.2a

35 Figure 8.2b

36 Figure 8.3a

37 Figure 8.3b

38 Figure 8.4

39 Figure 8.5


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