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Bones and Skeletal Tissues: Part A

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1 Bones and Skeletal Tissues: Part A
6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues: Part A

2 Moving on to chapter 11 after chapter 6
Begin on p. 389 Neurons. Thru p. 414 Stop at Neurotransmitters and their receptors This is online as 11b. We will cover other neurotransmitters and the rest of chapter 11 at a later date, time permitting. The study guide for chapter 5 is now available 6 will follow soon.

3 Two main groups, by location
Bones of the Skeleton Two main groups, by location Axial skeleton (brown) Appendicular skeleton (yellow)

4 Cartilage in Cartilages in external ear nose Articular Cartilage
of a joint Cartilage in Intervertebral disc Costal cartilage Pubic symphysis Meniscus Articular cartilage of a joint Figure 6.1

5 Classification of Bones by Shape
Long bones Longer than they are wide Short bones Cube-shaped bones (in wrist and ankle) Sesamoid bones (within tendons, e.g., patella)

6 Classification of Bones by Shape
Flat bones Thin, flat, slightly curved Irregular bones Complicated shapes

7 Figure 6.2

8 Functions of Bones Support Protection Movement
For the body and soft organs Protection For brain, spinal cord, and vital organs Movement Levers for muscle action

9 Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in marrow cavities
Functions of Bones Storage Minerals (calcium and phosphorus) and growth factors Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in marrow cavities Triglyceride (energy) storage in bone cavities

10 Bulges, depressions, and holes serve as
Bone Markings Bulges, depressions, and holes serve as Sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons Joint surfaces Conduits for blood vessels and nerves

11 Spongy (cancellous) bone
Bone Textures Compact bone Dense outer layer Spongy (cancellous) bone Honeycomb of trabeculae

12 Structure of a Long Bone
Diaphysis (shaft) Compact bone collar surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity Medullary cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow)

13 Structure of a Long Bone
Epiphyses Expanded ends Spongy bone interior Epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate) Articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces

14 Articular cartilage Compact bone Proximal epiphysis Spongy bone
Epiphyseal line Periosteum Compact bone Medullary cavity (lined by endosteum) (b) Diaphysis Distal epiphysis (a) Figure 6.3a-b

15 Figure 8.1

16 Membranes of Bone Periosteum Outer fibrous layer
Inner osteogenic layer Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) Osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells) Osteogenic cells (stem cells) Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via nutrient foramina Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers

17 Membranes of Bone Endosteum
Delicate membrane on internal surfaces of bone Also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts

18 Endosteum Yellow bone marrow Compact bone Periosteum Perforating
(Sharpey’s) fibers Nutrient arteries (c) Figure 6.3c

19 Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones
Periosteum-covers compact bone on the outside Endosteum-covers spongy bone within Spongy bone called diploë in flat bones Bone marrow between the trabeculae

20 Spongy bone (diploë) Compact bone Trabeculae Figure 6.5

21 Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow)
Red marrow cavities of adults Trabecular cavities of the heads of the femur and humerus Trabecular cavities of the diploë of flat bones Red marrow of newborn infants Medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone

22 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Cells of bones Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells Stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells

23 (a) Osteogenic cell (b) Osteoblast Stem cell Matrix-synthesizing
cell responsible for bone growth Figure 6.4a-b

24 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Cells of bone Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoclasts Cells that break down (resorb) bone matrix

25 (c) Osteocyte (d) Osteoclast Mature bone cell that maintains the
bone matrix Bone-resorbing cell Figure 6.4c-d

26 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Compact Bone
Haversian system, or osteon — structural unit Lamellae Weight-bearing Column-like matrix tubes Central (Haversian) canal Contains blood vessels and nerves

27 Artery with capillaries Structures in the Vein central canal
Nerve fiber Lamellae Collagen fibers run in different directions Twisting force Figure 6.6

28 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Compact Bone
Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals At right angles to the central canal Connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal Lacunae — small cavities that contain osteocytes Canaliculi — hair-like canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

29 Compact bone Spongy bone Central (Haversian) canal Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal Endosteum lining bony canals and covering trabeculae Osteon (Haversian system) Circumferential lamellae (a) Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Lamellae Periosteal blood vessel Periosteum Nerve Vein Artery Lamellae Central canal Canaliculi Lacuna (with osteocyte) Osteocyte in a lacuna Lacunae Interstitial lamellae (b) (c) Figure 6.7a-c

30 Nerve Vein Lamellae Artery Central canal Canaliculus Osteocyte Lacunae
in a lacuna Lacunae (b) Figure 6.3b

31 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Spongy Bone
Trabeculae Align along lines of stress No osteons Contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi Capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients

32 Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic
Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts Osteoid — organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts Ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins) Collagen fibers Provide tensile strength and flexibility

33 Chemical Composition of Bone: Inorganic
Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts) 65% of bone by mass Mainly calcium phosphate crystals Responsible for hardness and resistance to compression

34 Figure 8.2a

35 Figure 8.2b

36 Figure 8.3a

37 Figure 8.3b

38 Figure 8.4

39 Figure 8.5

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