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Skeletal Tissue Chapter 7. Types of Bone Tissue Compact bone –Dense or solid appearance Cancellous or spongy bone –Open spaces filled with needle-like.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal Tissue Chapter 7. Types of Bone Tissue Compact bone –Dense or solid appearance Cancellous or spongy bone –Open spaces filled with needle-like."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal Tissue Chapter 7

2 Types of Bone Tissue Compact bone –Dense or solid appearance Cancellous or spongy bone –Open spaces filled with needle-like bone structures

3 Structural Classification of Bones Long bones –typically longer than wide –Have shaft w/ heads at both ends –contains mostly compact bone –Ex: femur, humerus, ulna, radius Short bones –Cube or box-shaped –Mostly spongy bone –Ex: carpals & tarsals Flat bones –Thin, flattened –Usually curved surface –Thin layer of compact bone covering spongy bone –Ex: ribs, skull, sternum, scapulae –Bone marrow aspirations occur here Irregular bones –Various shapes/sizes –Do not fit into other categories –Ex: vertebrae, facial bones –Sesamoid bones: occur singularly (ex: patella)

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5 Long Bones – In More Detail Diaphysis –Shaft of the bone –Hollow, compact bone Epiphyses –Ends of the long bones –Points of muscle attachment –Stability to joints –Spongy bone filled with red marrow –Epiphyseal plate: area between diaphysis and epihyses (“growth plate”)

6 Long Bones – In More Detail Articular cartilage –Hyaline cartilage that covers joint surfaces Periosteum –Dense, white fibrous membrane that covers bone (excepts joint surfaces) –Tendon fibers interlace with these fibers creating a firm attachment Medullary (marrow) cavity –Hollow space in diaphysis of long bones –Filled with yellow marrow (CT rich in fat) Endosteum –Epithelial membrane that lines the medullary cavity

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8 Bone Tissue Connective tissue Consists of cells, fibers, extracellular matrix –Matrix predominates –Matrix hard and calcified –High content of collagen fibers

9 Composition of Bone Matrix Extracellular bone matrix can be subdivided into two components: –Inorganic salts –Organic matrix 1.Inorganic salts –Hydroxyapatite – specialized chemical crystals of calcium and phosphate Needle-like; found btwn spaces of collagen fibers; oriented to reduce stress –Deposition of these chemicals = calcification –Mg, Na, sulfate, F are also found in bone

10 Composition of Bone Matrix 2. Organic matrix –Collagenous fibers –Ground substance Protein & polysaccharide mixture Provides support & adhesion for cellular & fibrous elements Necessary for growth & repair Chondroitin sulfate – important component of ground substance Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate required for bone & cartilage repair and maintenance

11 Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone Structural unit of compact bone = osteon or Haversian system –Each osteon surrounds a cannal & runs lengthwise –Bone cells “cemented” within these units –Structure permits delivery and removal of nutrients and wastes Structures within each osteon: –Lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi, Haversian canal

12 Osteon structure Lamellae: concentric, cylinder-shaped layers of calcified matrix Lacunae (“little lakes”): small spaces filled with tissue fluid which hold bone cells Canaliculi: very small canals connecting lacunae together Haversian canal: extend lengthwise through the center of an osteon –contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves Volkmann’s canal: (not part of osteon) transverse canals containing nerves and blood vessels –Carry blood from exterior surface of bone to osteons

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15 Microscopic Structure of Cancellous (spongy) Bone No osteons Needle-like bony spicules – trabeculae –Bone cells found within the trabeculae Spongy bone usually lies between two layers of compact bone –Diploe –Ex: skull bones Bony spicules arranged along lines of stress –Varies for different types of bones

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17 Types of Bone Cells 1.Osteoblasts – bone-forming cells –synthesize & secrete a specialized organic matrix = osteoid; important part of ground substance –Osteoid serves as the framework for calcium & phosphate deposits = accumulation of mineralized bone 2.Osteoclasts – bone-reabsorbing cells –Giant multinucleated cells –Large number of mitochondria and lysosomes –Responsible for erosion of bone minerals –Break down bone matrix for remodeling & release of calcium 3.Osteocytes – mature bone cells –Mature, nondividing osteoblasts –Lie within lacunae

18 Bone Marrow Bone marrow = myeloid tissue –Specialized, soft CT Site of blood cell production Found within medullary cavities of long bones & spongy bone Red marrow –In infant and children – red marrow dominates –RBC production –In adults - Ribs, bodies of vertebrae, ends of long bones, pelvis still contain red marrow –During times of blood loss – yellow  red

19 Bone Marrow During aging red marrow becomes yellow Marrow cells become saturated with fat Inactive during blood cell production

20 Functions of Bone 1.Support –Shape, alignment, positioning of body parts 2.Protection –Protects organs 3.Movement –Bones and joints act as levers –Muscles attached to bones produce movement of joints 4.Mineral storage –Calcium and phosphorous –Homeostasis of blood calcium levels 5.Hematopoiesis –Blood cell formation

21 Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels Bones store approx 98% of body’s calcium Roles of calcium in the body: –Transmission of nerve signals –Skeletal & cardiac muscle contractions Osteoblasts – remove calcium from blood Osteoclasts – release calcium into blood

22 Mechanisms of Calcium Homeostasis ***Parathyroid Hormone*** – parathyroid glands –Ca levels below homeostatic “set point”: Osteoclast activity stimulated Calcium absorbed from urine in renal system Vitamin D synthesis stimulated  increases absorption of calcium in intestine Calcitonin – thyroid gland –High blood Ca levels  Stimulate osteoblast activity and inhibit osteoclast activity –Miacalcin: calcitonin nasal spray; used in osteoporosis pts

23 Development of Bone Infant – cartilage  replaced by calcified bone matrix –Requires osteoblast & osteoclast activity –Osteogenesis Intramembranous ossification: process by which most flat bones are formed within fibrous connective tissue membranes –Ex: skull bones (flat bones) & irregular bones

24 Endochondral Ossification (fig 7-8 pg. 198) Bones formed from cartilage model –Occurs from center to ends –Typical of long bones 1.Cartilage model 2.Periosteum  ring or collar of bone 3.Primary ossification center and entrance of blood vessels 4.Medullary cavity; thickening/lengthing of collar 5.Secondary ossification center in epiphyseal cartilage 6.Enlargement of secondary centers; bone growth moves toward diaphysis 7.Epiphyseal plates close

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27 Bone Growth & Resorption Bones grow in diameter –Osteoclasts enlarge diameter of medullary cavity –Osteoblasts in the periosteum build new bone from the outside –Grow in length (at epiphyseal plates) Childhood/adolescence – growth > resorption Adulthood – growth = resorption > 35-40 yrs – growth < resorption

28 Bone Remodeling Formation of new Haversian systems (osteons) –Osteoclasts erode surface of bone  grooves –Blood vessels lie in these grooves –New bone covers these blood vessels (osteoblast activity) –Grooves  canals –New lamallae develops

29 Bone Fracture Repair Fracture = break in the continuity of bone Vascular damage initiates repair sequence 1.Vascular damage  hemorrhage  blood clot (fracture hematoma) 2.Hematoma resorbed  callus –Specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together 3.Callus replaced by normal bone tissue –Proper alignment and immobilization necessary

30 Questions 1.Name the two types of bone tissue. 2.List the six structural components of a typical long bone visible to the naked eye. 3.What are the two principal chemical components of bone matrix? 4.What disease is characterized by loss of bone mineral density? 5.List and briefly describe the four structures found within an osteon. 6.Name and briefly describe the three major bone cell types. 7.What are the 5 functions of bone? 8.Briefly describe the steps in endochondral ossification.

31 Clarification Resorption = destruction Role of osteoclasts is bone resorption (destruction); erodes bone tissues releasing calcium into the blood


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