Basic transplant issues that impact blood bank policies. Recognize common serologic problems encountered in transplant recipients Appropriate blood products when transfusion is needed. Role of transfusion services
Salwa Hindawi Basic transplant issues Recipient-Donor ABO compatibility. ABO and Rh compatibility are not required for the successful outcome of BMT ABO and Rh compatibility are not required for the successful outcome of BMT
Salwa Hindawi BASIC TRANSPLANT ISSUES Special Blood Requirement Irradiated CMV Negative Leukocyte-Reduced Saline-washed or volume reduced
Salwa Hindawi Is this a major or minor ABO incompatibility? How high the patient’s antibody titers against the donor’s ABO group? How high the donor’s antibody titers against the patient’s ABO group? Will the patient require special conditioning? Will the HPC collection require processing? Pre-Transplant Considerations
Salwa Hindawi Compatible transplant Immunohemtologic complications Major incompatibility Minor incompatibility Major & minor incompatibility RECIPIENT-DONOR ABO COMPATIBILITY
Salwa Hindawi Recipient- Donor ABO Compatibility ABO Major Mismatch: Recipient is O-Donor is A -Acute hemolysis at infusion. -Delayed hemolysis from persistent patient antibodies. -Delayed onset of hematopoiesis. ABO Minor Mismatch: Recipient is A- Donor is O -Acute hemolysis at infusion. -Delayed hemolysis from donor antibodies. ABO Major-Minor Mismatch: Recipient is A-Donor is B
Salwa Hindawi Blood GroupOABAB OCompatibleMajor AMinorCompatibleMajor and minor Major BMinorMajor and minor CompatibleMajor ABMinor Compatible RECIPIENT ABO COMPATIBILITY DONOR
Salwa Hindawi TRANSFUSIONS FOLLOWING BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION beginning with preparative regimen ABO compatibility is not required between bone marrow donor and recipient. Compatible transplant no special requirements Minor incompatibility recipient type plasma and platelet until recipient cells have disappeared
Salwa Hindawi TRANSFUSIONS FOLLOWING BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Major incompatibility recipient type red cells until recipient isoagglutinins have disappeared Major and minor incompatibilities group AB plasma, group AB or washed platelets until recipient cells gone; group O red cells until recipient isoagglutinins have disapeared.
Salwa Hindawi Patient ABO Donor ABO RBC FFP 1 st Choice plt 2 nd Choice plt O A B AB OOOOOO A,AB B,AB AB B,O A,O A,B,O A O B AB O A,O A,AB AB B,O B,A,O A,B,O B O A AB O B,O B,AB AB A,O A,B,O B,A,O AB OABOAB O A,O B,O AB A,B,O Blood Selection when recipient/donor are not ABO identical
Salwa Hindawi major Rh-incomp.,patient anti-D antibodies against engrafted donor Rh+ RBCs. Mismatches involving Rh system may cause hemolysis, do not affect survival. Kidd,M,N and S. NON-ABO MISMATCHES
Salwa Hindawi Complications Related to Blood Transfusion Haemolysis Alloimmunization to red cell antigens Infection (CMV) Graft-Verses Host Disease (GVHD)
Salwa Hindawi Delayed hemolysis 7-14 days post transplant Mediated by donor lymphocytes carried in the HSC component Immune hemolysis of the recipient’s red cells as results of anti A and/or anti B production PBSC at greater risk than marrow Abrupt onset may be severe with signs of IV hemolysis Passenger B lymphocyte syndrome
Salwa Hindawi Worsen with transfusion,due to hemolysis of transfused group O RBCs. Methotrexate as anti-proliferative agent use to suppress the proliferation of donor lymphocytes in HSC inoculum. Passenger B lymphocyte syndrome
Salwa Hindawi Transfusion of Group O red cells Occasional red cell exchange transfusion is indicated to replace the recipient’s incompatible red cells with Group O. Recipient ABO plts type PROPHYLAXIS
Salwa Hindawi Red cell depletion and/or plasma depletion ONLY performed on BM collection. Red cell depletion: Recipient has Ab against Donor red cells. To avoid hemolysis of donor red blood cells in HPC collection. Plasma depletion: Donor has AbS against Recipient red cell. To avoid hemolysis of red blood cells in recipient’s circulation. Marrow Processing
Salwa Hindawi Alloimmunization Prevention of Febrile Non Haemolytic Transfusion Reaction. Replacement of CMV negative blood components. Leucodepletion of Blood Components
Salwa Hindawi Irradiation of blood products All cellular components should be gamma irradiated (25 Gy or 2500 cGy) this inactivates the T lymphocytes in the donor unit and prevents graft versus host disease in an immunocompromised recipient. Start at conditioning for 6month in Allogeneic BMT 3 month for Autologous BMT
Salwa Hindawi Indications for Gamma Irradiated Blood Components congenital immunodeficiency syndromes. intrauterine transfusions. All neonates who received intrauterine transfusion. transfusions from all blood relatives. bone marrow transplant recipients.
Salwa Hindawi Cord Blood The multipotent-stem-cell-rich blood found in the umbilical cord has proven useful in treating the same types of diseases as those treated using bone marrow stem cells and PBSCs. Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are less prone to rejection than either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. Umbilical cord blood lacks well-developed immune cells the cells have not yet developed the features that can be recognized and attacked by the recipient's immune system
Salwa Hindawi Conclusions: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is rapidly expanding as a practical and therapeutic modalities. the transfusion medicine professional must take into account the series of immunohematological changes and complications that may arise in such patients. We must apply techniques, methods, and approaches not routinely used in the general blood-banking environment.