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Nadia Goodwin & Missy Walker

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1 Nadia Goodwin & Missy Walker
Blood and Bone Marrow Histology SSN November 18, 2004 Presented by: Nadia Goodwin & Missy Walker

2 Formed Elements of the Blood

3 Peripheral Blood: Erythrocytes
RBCs constitute the largest number of cells in the blood Biconcave discs NO NUCLEUS Contain Hemoglobin

4 Peripheral Blood: Platelets
Derived from Megakaryocytes in bone marrow – formed from small bits of Megakaryocyte cytoplasm Function in blood clotting

5 Peripheral Blood: Leukocytes
GRANULOCYTES Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils AGRANULOCYTES Lymphocytes (T and B cells) Monocytes (Macrophages)

6 Peripheral Blood: Leukocytes
GRANULOCYTES Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils

7 Granulocytes: Neutrophils
Most numerous WBC in blood Multilobed nucleus Granules: Azurophilic granules Specific granules Function 1st wave of cells in acute inflammation; can phagocytose bacteria

8 Granulocytes: Basophils
Rare! Lobulated nucleus often obscured by granules Dark Blue Granules Hydrolytic enzymes, heparin sulfate, histamine, SRS Function Role in hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis

9 Granulocytes: Eosinophils
Bilobed nucleus Bright pink Granules Arginine rich major basic protein, peroxidase, histaminase, arylsulfatase Function: Important in allergic rxns, parasitic infections, and phagocytosis of Ab-Ag complexes

10 Agranulocytes: Monocytes
Largest WBCs in blood smear Migrate through blood to the tissues; once in tissues they differentiate into phagocytes (macrophages)

11 Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes
About size of RBCs Function Main functional cells of adaptive immune system T cells B cells

12 Questions Which of the following cell types would be expected to be increased in number with a bacterial infection? Viral? Parasitic?


14 RBC Development Watch for trends!

15 Proerythroblast Biggest in lineage
Large central nucleus with one or two nucleoli Basophilic cytoplasm b/c ribosomes Look for Golgi ghost

16 Basophilic Erythroblast
Smaller than proerythroblast Checkerboard nucleus (heterochromatic) Intense basophilia (lots of ribosomes!)

17 Proerythroblast vs Basophilic Erythroblast

18 Polychromatophilic Erythroblast
Smaller than basophilic erythroblast Smaller intensely heterochromatic nucleus Purple/lilac cytoplasm mix of basophilia from ribosomes and growing eosinophilia from hemoglobin LAST MITOTIC STAGE!

19 Normoblast Smaller than polychromatophilic erythroblast
Small, compact, intensely staining nucleus that is getting ready to be extruded Eosinophilic cytoplasm due to abundant hemoglobin

20 Reticulocyte Immature RBC that has polyribosomes
Appear as polychrom-atophilic erythrocyte on blood smear When stained with a special (supravital) stain  Reticulocyte

21 Erythrocyte Smallest Eosinophilic due to hemoglobin NO NUCLEUS!

22 Erythropoiesis


24 Development of Granulocytes

25 What are the Granulocytes?
These are cells of the immune system (White Blood Cells) that contain vesicles. The vesicle contents vary among cell lines and stain differently. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear or PMN cells) Eosinophils Basophils

26 Trend of Development Larger to smaller
Azure granules to specific granules Round nucleus to altered shape nucleus Granulocyte Lineage: Myeloblast → Promyelocyte → Myelocyte → Metamyelocyte → Band → Granulocyte (Erythroid: Proerythroblast →Basophilic erythroblast → Polychromatophilic erythroblast → Normoblast → Reticulocyte → Erythrocyte)

27 Myeloblast Prominent nucleoli

28 PROmyelocyte Details Golgi ghost
Can’t distinguish type of granulocyte yet Eccentric nucleus Don’t confuse with proerythroblast or basophilic erythroblasts

29 Myelocyte Last stage in which mitosis can occur
Begin to see who’s a neutrophil, who’s an eosinophil (who’s a basophil) Golgi ghost

30 Neutrophilic Myelocyte vs
Eosinophilic Myelocyte

31 METAmyelocyte nucleus changing shape, not spherical
Soooo No more mitosis

32 Band Cell Immature granulocyte
Elongated nucleus of nearly uniform width; horseshoe/U-shaped

33 Finally . . .

34 Myeloblast – no granules capable of
mitosis Promyelocyte – azurophilic granules Mylocyte – specific granules Metamylocyte – specifc granules nucleus changes shape Band cell – (PMN only) specific granules Mature Granulocyte – specific granules

35 Compare what you see . . .

36 Megakaryocyte Huge Platelets form from invaginations of this
Multilobular nucleus

37 Megakaryocyte


39 Don’t Worry, Be Happy!

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