16Levels of Body Organization Cells form tissuesTissues form organsOrgans form systemsSystems form whole body
17Cells cyt/o + -logy = cytology Cyt/o + -logy = cytology The study of cells and their functionCyt/o+ -logy= cytology
18Cells Fundamental unit of life Has all properties of being alive Responds to stimuliEngages in metabolic activityReproduces itselfAll tissues and organs in body formed of cells
19Cells Individual cells perform functions for body Reproduction Hormone secretionEnergy productionExcretion
20Cells Special cells carry out very specific functions Muscle contractionElectrical impulse transmission
21Cells Cells come in different sizes and shapes But all cells,at some point of their life cycle, haveNucleusCytoplasmCell membrane
22Muscle Contraction Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation showing muscle contraction.Back to Directory22
23Figure 2.1 Examples of four different types of cells from the body illustrating the differences in shape.
24Tissues hist/o -logy = histology The study of tissueFormed when like cells are grouped together to perform an activityFour types of tissueMuscle tissueEpithelial tissueConnective tissueNervous tissuehist/o+ -logy= histology
25Muscle Tissue Produces movement in body by contracting Composed of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers
26Muscle Tissue Three basic types of muscles Skeletal muscle attached to bonesSmooth muscleinternal organs like intestine and uterusCardiac muscleonly in the heart
27Figure 2.2 This figure shows the appearance of different types of tissues and their location within the body.
28Epithelial Tissue Known as epithelium Found as lining for internal organs and covering for the skinClose-packed cells that function to:Form a protective barrier – skinAbsorb – lining of intestineSecrete – sweat glandsExcrete wastes – kidney tubules
29Figure 2.2 This figure shows the appearance of different types of tissues and their location within the body.
30Connective Tissue Supports and protects Function depends on location Many different formsAdiposeBoneCartilageTendons
31Figure 2.2 This figure shows the appearance of different types of tissues and their location within the body.
32Nervous Tissue Composed of cells called neurons Forms the brain, spinal cord, and nervesAllows for conduction of electrical impulses between brain and rest of the body
33Click on the screenshot to view an animation showing neurons. Neuron AnimationClick on the screenshot to view an animation showing neurons.Back to Directory33
34Figure 2.2 This figure shows the appearance of different types of tissues and their location within the body.
35Organs Composed of several types of tissue Work together as a unit Perform special functionsExample: stomach contains:Muscle fibersNerve tissuesEpithelial tissue
36SystemsComposed of several organs working together in coordinated mannerPerform complex functionsExample: stomach plus other digestive organs including mouth, esophagus, liver, pancreas, small intestine, and colon work together to break down, digest, and absorb food
37Integumentary System Two-way barrier and temperature regulation Organs SkinHairNailsSweat glandsSebaceous glands
38Musculoskeletal System – Skeleton Supports and protects body, forms blood cells, stores mineralsOrgansBonesJoints
39Musculoskeletal System – Muscles Produce movementOrgansMuscles
40Cardiovascular System Pumps blood to transport nutrients, oxygen, and wastesOrgansHeartArteriesVeins
41Cardiovascular System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the cardiovascular system.Back to Directory
42Blood (Hematic System) Transports oxygen, protects, and controls bleedingOrgansPlasmaErythrocytesLeukocytesPlatelets
43Lymphatic System Protects body Organs Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels SpleenThymus glandTonsils
44Lymphatic System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the lymphatic system.Back to Directory
45Respiratory System Obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Organs Nasal cavityPharynxLarynxTracheaBronchial tubesLungs
46Respiratory System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the respiratory system. The animation may take a moment before playing.Back to Directory
47Gastrointestinal System Ingest, digest, and absorb nutrientsOrgansOral cavityPharynxEsophagusStomachSmall intestineColonLiver & gallbladderPancreas
48Digestive System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the digestive system.Back to Directory
49Urinary System Filters waste and removes from body Organs Kidneys UretersUrinary bladderUrethra
50Urinary System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the urinary system. The animation may take a moment before playing.Back to Directory
51Female Reproductive System Produces eggs and provides place for babyOrgansOvariesFallopian tubesUterusVaginaVulvaBreast
52Female Reproductive System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the female reproductive system.Back to Directory
53Male Reproductive System Produces spermOrgansTestesEpididymisVas deferensPenisSeminal vesiclesProstate glansBulbourethral glands
54Male Reproductive System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the male reproductive system.Back to Directory
77Abdominopelvic Cavity Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragmSuperior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavityContain digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs
78Figure 2.6 The dorsal (red) and ventral (blue) body cavities.
79Viscera Encased in Sac Double layered membranous sac Parietal layer – outer layer that lines cavitiesVisceral layer – inner layer that contacts visceraCalled pleura in thoracic cavityCalled peritoneum in abdominopelvic cavity
80Subdivisions of Pleura Pleural cavitySurrounds the lungsPericardial cavitySurrounds the heart
81Anatomical Divisions of the Abdomen Upper row regionsHypochondriacEpigastricMiddle row regionsLumbarUmbilicalLower row regionsInguinalHypogastric
82Table 2.3, Figure A The anatomical divisions of the abdomen.
83Clinical Divisions of Abdomen Right upper quadrant (RUQ)Right lower quadrant (RLQ)Majority of liverGallbladderSmall portion of pancreasSmall intestineColonSmall intestineColonRight ovaryRight fallopian tubeAppendixRight ureter
84Clinical Divisions of Abdomen Left upper quadrant (LUQ)Left lower quadrant (LLQ)Small portion of liverSpleenStomachMajority of pancreasSmall intestineColonSmall intestineColonLeft ovaryLeft fallopian tubeLeft ureter
85Table 2.3, Figure B The clinical divisions of the abdomen.
86Directional TermsAssist medical personnel in position or location of patient’s complaintHelp to describe one process, organ, or system as it relates to anotherThey are listed in pairs that have opposite meanings in following table
87Directional Terms Superior or cephalic Inferior or caudal More towards headInferior or caudalMore towards feetAnterior or ventralMore towards front or belly-side of body
88Directional Terms Posterior or dorsal More towards back or spinal cord side of body
89Directional Terms Medial Lateral Proximal Distal More towards middle More towards sideProximalNearer to the point of attachment to bodyDistalFarther away from point of attachment to body
90Figure 2.7 Anterior and lateral views of the body illustrating directional terms.
91Directional Terms Apex Base Superficial Deep Tip or summit of organ Bottom or lower part of an organSuperficialMore towards surface of bodyDeepFurther away from surface of body