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Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Body Structure, Color, and Oncology.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Body Structure, Color, and Oncology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Body Structure, Color, and Oncology

2 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Lesson

3 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-3 Objectives  Identify anatomic structures of the human body.  Define and spell word parts related to body structure, color, and oncology.  Define, pronounce, and spell disease and disorder oncology terms.  Define, pronounce, and spell body structure terms

4 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-4 Organization of the Human Body  cell: basic unit of all life  tissue: similar cells that perform a specific task  organ: two or more kinds of tissue that together perform special body functions  system: a group of organs that work together to perform complex body functions

5 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-5 Body Cells  The human body is composed of trillions of cells of various sizes and shapes.  cell membrane: boundary of a cell  cytoplasm: substance outside nucleus of a cell  nucleus: central structure containing chromosomes

6 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-6 Body Cells (cont’d.)

7 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-7 Types of Tissues  muscle tissue: produces movement  nervous tissue: conducts impulses to and from the brain  connective tissue: connects, supports, penetrates, and encases various body structures  epithelial tissue: found in the skin and lining of the blood vessels

8 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-8 Organization of the Human Body  chromosomes: 46 in human cells except for mature sex cell, which has 23  genes: regions within the chromosome (determine hereditary characteristics)  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): each gene is composed of DNA, a chemical that regulates the activities of the cell

9 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-9 Body Cavities  cranial cavity: brain  spinal cavity: spinal cord  thoracic cavity: heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, bronchi  abdominal cavity: stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, ureters  pelvic cavity: urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, part of large intestine, rectum

10 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-10 Body Cavities (cont’d.)

11 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-11 Combining Forms of Body Structure  aden/o – Gland  cyt/o - cell  epitheli/o - epithelium  fibr/o - fiber  hist/o - tissue  kary/o - nucleus  lip/o - fat

12 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-12  my/o - Muscle  neur/o - Nerve  organ/o - organ  sarc/o – flesh, connective tissue  system/o - system  viscer/o - internal organs

13 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-13 Organization of the Human Body (cont’d.)

14 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-14 Types of Tissues (cont’d.)

15 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-15 Combining Forms Commonly Used with Body Structure Terms  cancer/o, carcin/o – cancer, unregulated, abnormal cell growth  eti/o - cause  gno/o - knowledge  iatr/o – physican, medicine, treatment  lei/o - smooth  onc/o – tumor, mass  path/o - disease  rhabd/o – rod shaped, striated  somat/o - body

16 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-16 Combining Forms for Colors  chlor/o - green  chrom/o - color  cyan/o - blue  erythr/o - red  leuk/o - white  melan/o - black  xanth/o - yellow

17 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-17 Prefixes  dia- through, complete  dys- painful, abnormal, difficult, labored  hyper- above, excessive  hypo- below, imcomplete, deficient  meta- after, beyond, change  neo – new  pro- before

18 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-18 Suffixes  -al, -ic, -ous – pertaining to  -cyte - cell  -gen – substance or agent that produces or causes  -genesis – origin, cause  -genic – producing, originating, causing  -logist – one who studies and treats  -logy – study of  -oid - resembling

19 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-19  -oma – tumor, swelling  -osis – abnormal condition  -pathy - disease  -plasia – condition of formation, development, growth  -plasm – growth, substance, formation  -sarcoma – malignant tumor  -sis – state of  -stasis – control, stop, standing

20 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-20 Compare and Contrast Word Root  cyt/o  path/o  sarc/o Suffix – made of the root word  -cyte  -pathy  -sarcoma

21 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-21 Suffixes Containing “gen”  -gen: substance that produces or causes Example: carcin/o/gen: substance that causes cancer  -genic: producing, originating, causing Example: cyt/o/genic: producing cells  -genesis: origin, cause Example: onc/o/genesis: cause of tumors

22 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-22 Clicker Question Which of the following is a suffix that means disease? a) cyt/o b) -pathy c) path/o d) -cyte

23 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-23 Oncology Terms Built from Word Parts  Adenocarcinoma – cancerous tumor of glandular tissue  Adenoma – tumor composed of glandular tissue (benign)  carcinoma – cancerous tumor (malignant)  chloroma – tumor of green color (malignant, from myloid tissue)  Epithelioma – tumor composed of epithelium (benign or malig.)  Fibroma – tumor composed of fibrous tissue (benign)  Fibrosarcoma – malignant tumor of fibrous tissue  Leiomyoma – tumor composed of smooth muscle (benign)  Leiomyosarcoma – malignant tumor of smooth muscle  Lipoma – tumor composed of fat (benign)

24 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-24  Liposarcoma – malignant tumor of fat  Melanocarcinoma – cancerous black tumor  Melanoma – black tumor (usually skin)  Myoma – tumor composed of muscle (benign)  Neoplasm – new growth (abnormal or tumor)  Neuroma – tumor composed of nerve (benign)  Rhabdomyosarcoma – malignant tumor of striated muscle  Sarcoma – tumor of connective tissue (bone or cartillage) highly malignant

25 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-25 Analyzing Terms that Appear to Be Built from a Prefix and Suffix  “Neoplasm” is built from what looks like a prefix and a suffix: the word root is embedded in the suffix. S(WR) is used in the “Building Medical Terms” exercises to indicate this.

26 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-26 Pronunciation Guide  The following is a simple guide to use for practicing pronunciation of the medical terms.  The pronunciations are only approximate; however, they are adequate to meet the needs of the beginning student.  In respelling for pronunciation, words are minimally distorted to indicate phonetic sound.  Example: doctor (dok-tor), gastric (gas-trik)

27 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-27 Pronunciation Guide (cont’d.)  The macron (-) is used to indicate the long vowel sounds. Example: donate (do-nate) hepatoma (hep-a-to-ma) aas in ate, say eas in eat, beet, see ias in i, mine, sky oas in oats, so uas in unit, mute -- -

28 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-28 Pronunciation Guide (cont’d.)  Vowels with no markings have the short sound. Example: discuss (dis-kus) medical (med-i-kal) aas in at, lad eas in edge, bet ias in itch, wish oas in ox, top uas in sun, come

29 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-29 Pronunciation Guide (cont’d.)  An accent mark is the stress on a certain syllable. The primary accent is indicated by capital letters, and the secondary accent (which is stressed, but not as strongly as the primary accent) is indicated by italics. Example: altogether (all-tu-GETH-er) pancreatitis (pan-kre-a-Tl-tis) - --

30 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-30 Clicker Question Which of the following is analyzed correctly? a) melan/o/carcin/oma b) melano/carcin/oma wr cv wr s wr wr s cf

31 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-31 Body Structure Terms Built from Word Parts  Cytogenic – producing cells  Cytoid – resembling cells  Cytology – study of cells  Cytoplasm – cell substance  Dysplasia – abnormal development  Epithelial – pertaining to the epithelium  Erythrocyte – red blood cell  Erythrocytosis – increase in the number of RBC  Histology – study of tissue  Hyperplasia – excessive development (# of cells)  Hypoplasia – incomplete developoment (of an organ or tissues)

32 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-32 Body Structure Terms Built from Word Parts (cont’d.)  Karyocyte – cell with a nucleus  Karyoplasm – substance of a nucleus  Leukocyte – white blood cells  Leukocytosis – increase in the number of WBC  Lipoid – resembling fat  Myopathy – disease of the muscle  Neuroid – resembling a nerve  Somatic - pertaining to the body  Systemic – pertaining to a body system  Visceral – pertaining to the internal organs

33 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-33 Blood Cells 1. erythrocytes 2. leukocytes

34 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-34 Clicker Question Which of the following means red blood cell? a) karyocyte b) leukocyte c) erythrocyte d) cytoplasm

35 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Lesson 2.2

36 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-36 Objectives  Define, pronounce and spell complementary terms related to body structure, color, and oncology.  Identify and use in singular and plural endings  Interpret the meaning of abbreviations related to body structure, color, and oncology.  Interpret, read, and comprehend medical language in simulated medical statements and documents.

37 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-37 Complementary Terms Built from Word Parts  Cancerous – pertaining to cancer  Carcinogen – substance that causes cancer  Carcinogenic – producing cancer  Cyanosis – abnormal condition of blue discoloration of the skin caused by inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood  Diagnosis – state of complete knowledge  Etiology – study of causes of diseases  Iatrogenic – produced by a physician (unexpected results)  Metastasis – beyond control (transfer of a disease from one organ to another)

38 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-38  Neopathy – new disease  Oncologist – physician who studies and treats tumors  Oncology – study of tumors (malignant)  Pathogenic – producing disease  Pathologist – physician who studies diseases (determines cause of death; autopsy)  Pathology – study of disease (cause of disease and death)  Prognosis – state of before knowledge (prediction of the outcome of a disease)  Xanthochromic – pertaining to yellow color  Xanthosis – abnormal condition of yellow (discoloration)

39 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-39 Complementary Terms Not Built from Word Parts  Benign – not malignant, nonrecurrent, favorable for recovery  carcinoma in situ – cancer in the early stage before invading surrounding tissue  chemotherapy (chemo) – treatment of cancer with drugs  Exacerbation – increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms  Idiopathic – pertaining to disease of unknown origin  inflammation – response to injury or destruction of tissue characterized by redness, swelling, heat and pain  in vitro – within a glass, observable within a test tube  in vivo – within the living body  Malignant – tending to become progressively worse and to cause death, as in cancer  radiation therapy – treatment of cancer with a radioactive substnace, x-ray, or radiation  Remission – improvement or absence of signs of disease

40 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-40 Clicker Question Which of the following terms is built from word parts and can be literally translated to find its meaning? a) in vitro b) cancer in situ c) adenocarcinoma d) benign

41 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-41 Table 2-2 Common Plural Endings Singular Endings Plurals Formation Singular Form Plural Form -a -ae vertebra vertebrae -ax -aces thorax thoraces -is -es testis testes -ix -ices appendix appendices -ma -mata carcinoma carcinomata -on -a ganglion ganglia -sis -ses metastasis metastases -um -a ovum ova -us -i fungus fungi -nx -nges larynx larynges -y -ies biopsy biopsies

42 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-42 Abbreviations  Ca - carcinoma  Chemo - chemotherapy  Dx - diagnosis  Mets - metastasis  Px - prognosis  RBC – red blood cells  XRT – radiation therapy  WBC – white blood cells

43 Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.2-43 Read Medical Terms A 54-year-old woman presented to the office with a 3- week history of bloody diarrhea. She had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis at age 25 years. She was referred for a colonoscopy. The examination revealed a suspicious lesion in the transverse colon. A biopsy was performed and a cytology specimen was obtained. The pathologist made a diagnosis of carcinoma of the colon. Advanced dysplasia and inflammation existed in the specimen. The patient underwent surgery and was found to have no evidence of metastasis. Her entire colon was removed because of a high risk for developing a malignant lesion in the remaining colon. She made an uneventful recovery and was referred to an oncologist for consideration of chemotherapy. Her prognosis is generally positive. Radiation therapy is not indicated in this case.


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