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Yazdan Mansourian, PhD Tarbiat Moallem University 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Yazdan Mansourian, PhD Tarbiat Moallem University 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Yazdan Mansourian, PhD Tarbiat Moallem University 1

2  Introduction  Evaluating Information Resources ◦ Quality ◦ Usability ◦ Authenticity  Information Literacy Skills ◦ ACRL and SCONUL Standards  Ten C's For Evaluating Sources  More Criteria for Evaluation  The Invisible and Deep Web 2

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4  A set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information.”  Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning.  It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. (ACRL Definition of IL) 4

5  An information literate individual is able to:  Determine the extent of information needed,  Access the needed information effectively and efficiently,  Evaluate information and its sources critically,  Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base,  Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose,  Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally. 5

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7  The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system. 7

8 From Allan Kent and Harold Lancour, eds., Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (New York, 1979), 8

9  Content  Credibility  Critical Thinking  Copyright  Citation  Continuity  Censorship  Connectivity  Comparability  Context (Betsy, 2003) 9

10 1. Purpose & Scope 2. Authority & Authorship 3. Objectivity & Validity 4. Accountability & Authenticity 5. Clarity & Readability 6. Appropriateness & Relevance 7. Currency & Accuracy 8. Coverage & Comprehensiveness 9. Originality & Practicability 10. Accessibility & Availability 10

11  Commercial  Informative  Educational  Entertaining  Persuasive  Personal  Institutional 11

12  Breadth: What aspects of the subject are covered? Is the resource focused on a narrow area or does it include related topics?  Depth: What is the level of detail provided about the subject?  Time: Is the information in the resource limited to certain time periods?  Format: A resource that provides links may restrict its scope to certain classes of resources. (Smith, 1997) 12

13  Who is the author? Who wrote the page?  Does the author have sufficient authority to write on the subject?  Is there any way to reach the author?  Is there an organizational or corporate sponsor?  Is there a credible reference list?  Does the page have overall integrity and reliability? 13

14  What are the author's credentials-institutional affiliation?  What is the author educational background, past writings, or experience?  Is the document written on a topic in the author's area of expertise?  Have you seen the author's name cited in other sources or bibliographies?  Is the author associated with a reputable institution? 14

15  Is the document mainly covered facts or opinions?  Does the information appear to be valid and supported by enough evidence?  Is the author's point of view objective and impartial?  Does the content reflect any sorts of bias?  Is the bias explicit or hidden in the document? And how does the bias may impact its usefulness? 15

16  Is the author honest about her/his purpose and content?  Is there a way to directly contact the author?  Does the author give credit for information used?  Is there a reference list, based on a well known citation style?  How trustworthy are the cited resources?  How comprehensible is the supporting evidence? 16

17  Are the primary, rather than secondary, references used in the document?  Does the author represent authoritative sources of information?  Have all relevant and pertinent references been cited?  Have the most up-to-date references been included?  Are all the reference entries accurate and complete? 17

18  How clear the information presented?  Are the paragraphs and pages well organized in the document?  Is the text precise, understandable and formatted for easy reading?  If there are graphics, do they add some values to the content?  Are there any mistakes in grammar, spelling or word usage? 18

19  Avoid unnecessary and difficult jargons  Provide enough easy navigation tools  Remove broken and dead links  Keep the content up-to-date  Always keep the target audience in mind  Provide a form for users to contact the author  Check out the browser compatibility  Keep files small for quick download 19

20  Text Size  Alt text ◦ All non-decorative images utilise the alt attribute to provide descriptive text alternatives. You can access this text by placing the cursor over the image.  Titles on links ◦ Where appropriate, descriptive title attributes have been added to links providing a fuller description of the destination page.  Text Only Version  Forms ◦ Forms contain tab keys to ensure completion in the correct order.  Pop-up windows ◦ The site does not contain any pop-up windows.  Built to standards  Browser Compatibility 20

21  Legibility Problems  Non-Standard Links  Flash  Content That's Not Written for the Web  Bad Search  Browser Incompatibility  Cumbersome Forms  No Contact Information or Other Company Info  Frozen Layouts with Fixed Page Widths  Inadequate Photo Enlargement (Nielsen, 2005) 21

22  Is the content appropriate for your students’ assignment?  Is the reading level appropriate for your students?  Is the content appropriate for the age or developmental level of your students?  Is the content accurate, complete, and also well-written?  Is the content relevant to your teaching topic? 22

23  Is the information on the page up-to-date?  Can you easily find out when each page was last updated?  Are there any broken and dead links in the document?  Does the document include a date of creation and copyright?  Can you see the data of last modifications? 23

24  Does the document extensively cover the main topic? ◦ Usually we have to explore a range of resources to obtain an overall view of various viewpoints.  Is the main materials primary or secondary in nature? ◦ Primary resources are directly obtained from the research process. While, secondary sources are mostly based on the primary sources. 24

25  Does the document present new, innovative, or insightful information?  Does the document provide the reader with new findings?  Is the material presented in a novel or unique way?  Is the document based on scientific and research-based data?  What are the practical implications of the presented findings? 25

26  How accessible is the document for general- purpose search engines?  Can you easily get access to the document?  Does the site usually load quickly?  Can the end user move around the site easily?  Is the document freely available for end users? 26

27 The Invisible Web The Opaque Web The Proprietary Web The Truly Invisible Web Depth of Crawl Frequency of Crawl Maximum Number of Viewable Results Unconnected URLs The Private Web Formats that can not be indexed by current generation of search engines Password Protected Pages Fee-based Web Resources Information Stored in Relational Databases Dynamically Generated Pages Noindex Meta tag Robots.txt Registration Required Pages Ford, N. and Mansourian, Y. (2006). “The invisible Web: an empirical study of ‘cognitive invisibility’”. Journal of Documentation, Vol. 62 No.5, pp. 584-596. 27

28  The portion of the Web, which is hidden for the general-purpose search engines. This part consists of material that conventional search engines either cannot, or perhaps, will not include in their indexes. Price & Sherman (2001: 57)  First Coined by Dr. Jill Ellsworth (1996) or by Matthew Koll? 28

29 Sherman and Price (2001) categorised the invisible web into four categories: ◦ The Opaque Web ◦ The Private Web ◦ The Proprietary Web ◦ The Truly Invisible Web 29

30  Depth of Crawling, (Almost Visible Web)  Frequency of Crawling  Maximum Number of Viewable Results  Disconnected URLs  Broken Links, Dead Links (Linkrot) 30

31  Technically indexable, but have deliberately been excluded from search engines.  Password Protected Pages  Robots.txt & noindex Meta tag 31

32  Registration Required Pages  Fee-based Web Resources  These databases provide users with search facilities. However, their contents are not searchable through the search engines. 32

33  Formats that can not be indexed by current generation of search engines  Dynamically Generated Pages (Deep Web)  Deliberately Omitted Pages from Search Engines’ Indexes 33

34  Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Chicago: ACRL. [On-line] tency.cfm (Accessed 15 November 2010) tency.cfm  Betsy, R. (2003), Ten C's For Evaluating Internet Sources, University of Wisconsin, n%20C%20internet%20sources.htm (Accessed 15 November 2010) n%20C%20internet%20sources.htm  Ford, N. and Mansourian, Y. (2006). “The invisible Web: an empirical study of ‘cognitive invisibility’”. Journal of Documentation, Vol. 62 No.5, pp. 584-596.  Kapoun, J. (1998) Teaching undergrads Web Evaluation: A guide for library instruction C&RL News (July/August 1998): 522-523, available at: (Accessed 15 November 2010) 34

35  Kirk, E. (1996). Evaluating Information Found on the Internet, Johns Hopkins University Website, available at: (Accessed 15 November 2010)  Smith, A. G. (1997) Testing the Surf: Criteria for Evaluating Internet Information Resources. The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 8, No. 3, available at (Accessed 15 November 2010)  Nielsen (2010), Jakob Nielsen's Website. (Accessed 15 November 2010)  Teaching Library Internet Workshops (2002), Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask, Berkeley University Library, (Accessed 15 November 2010) 35

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