Made of German silver (alloy of Ag + Cu + P) Has obturator (pilot), inner tube & outer tube Inner tube is longer than outer tube for its removal & cleaning. Outer tube maintains patency. Pilot is inserted into outer tube for smooth & non-traumatic insertion of tube Lock prevents expulsion of tube during cough
Fuller’s metallic tube Outer tube bi-valved. The 2 blades when pressed together, help in smooth entry of tube. Inner tube is longer & has a vent for phonation Pt phonates by closing main tube opening Vent also helps in decannulation of tube
Made of siliconized PolyVinylChloride. It is thermolabile & prevents crusting. Low pressure high volume cuff maintains an air-tight seal required for: Prevention of aspiration of secretions Positive pressure ventilation
Metallic TubesPlastic Tubes Easily cleaned without suction Cleaning requires suction Cuff is absentCuff is present Cannot be connected to ventilator Can be connected Rigid & less comfortable to patient Soft & more comfortable Concomitant radio- therapy is to be avoided Can be given
Functions of Tracheostomy 1. Relieves upper airway obstruction 2. Improves alveolar ventilation by ing dead space by 30-50% & ing airflow resistance 3. Prevention of aspiration of blood & secretions 4. Removal of airway secretions in patient with inability to cough or with painful cough 5. Administration of anesthesia
Mid tracheostomy preferred High tracheostomy leads to subglottic stenosis Low tracheostomy is avoided as: Trachea is deeper Displacement of tracheostomy tube is common Proximity to great vessels Surgical emphysema is common Tracheostoma is close to tracheal bifurcation
Exposure of thyroid isthmus Strap muscles retracted laterally with Langenbeck retractors to expose the trachea & thyroid isthmus
Isthmus separation from trachea Thyroid isthmus detached from tracheal surface & retracted with blunt tracheal hook.
Isthmus retraction to expose pre-tracheal fascia
Division of thyroid isthmus If required, thyroid isthmus is divided between clamps. Transfixion sutures applied at the ends.
Confirmation of trachea 5 ml syringe containing 4 % Lignocaine taken, its needle inserted into trachea & aspirated. Air bubbles confirm presence of needle in trachea. 2 ml of solution injected into trachea & needle removed quickly to avoid breaking of needle during violent cough movements.
Creation of tracheal window Sharp cricoid hook inserted below cricoid to steady trachea. Tracheal window created by excising anterior 1/3rd of 2 nd & 3 rd tracheal ring with No. 11 blade & Allis tissue forceps.
Causes of surgical emphysema after tracheostomy Dissection into many tissue planes in neck Use of smaller tracheostomy tube Tight closing of skin incision Excessive struggling & coughing of pt during extubation
Tracheostomy care Pt given 100 % oxygen. Deflate the tube cuff. Suction catheter with negative suction pressure (10 -15 mmHg) used Catheter diameter should be < 1/3rd of internal diameter of tracheostomy tube Catheter length introduced just enough to go beyond inner tube (10 cm)
Tracheostomy care Multiple-eyed catheters produce less trauma than whistle tip catheters Lubricated catheter tip inserted (with suction off) as pt is inspiring. At end inspiration, suction put on & catheter withdrawn in rotating motion. Each suction procedure should last for 10-15 seconds. Instill 0.5 ml NaHCO3 to liquefy crusts.
Tracheostomy care Chest auscultated for confirmation of adequate suctioning. Re-inflate cuff to a pressure of 25 mmHg. Patient oxygenated again. Tracheostomy wound dressing done BID Steam inhalation TID. Moist gauze piece placed over tracheostomy tube opening. Regular chest physiotherapy, expectorants & mucolytics given.
Tracheostomy tube changing Inner tube is removed & cleaned when blocked Outer tube never removed before 72 hrs to allow formation of tracheo-cutaneous tract Cuff of Portex tube deflated for 10 minutes every 2 hours to prevent pressure necrosis & dilatation of trachea
Decannulation Adult: plug or seal tube opening & if tolerated for 24 hrs, remove tube. Child: Sequentially reduce size of tube. After tube removal close wound. Healing occurs within 1 week. Secondary closure after freshening the wound margin is required rarely.
Decannulation difficulty Organic causes: Persistence of cause requiring tracheostomy Obstructing tracheal granulations Tracheal oedema Subglottic stenosis Collapse of tracheal wall (tracheomalacia)
Decannulation difficulty Non-organic causes: Emotional dependence in children Inability to tolerate upper airway resistance In-coordination of laryngeal opening reflex Long-standing tube leads to impaired laryngeal development
TracheostomyIntubation InvasiveNon-invasive Complications are moreLess Can be kept for > 7 daysShould not be kept Pt can speakCannot speak Tracheo-bronchial toilet is easyDifficult Decreases dead space by 30-50%Does not
Disadvantages of Tracheostomy Anosmia: no nasal air entry Aphonia: avoided by phonatory vent Aspiration: avoided by cuffed tube Inability to lift heavy weight Inability to perform strenuous exercise Inability to swim
Percutaneous Tracheostomy Trachea punctured with needle & cannula Needle removed & a guide wire passed into trachea via cannula Cannula removed & graded dilators passed over guide wire till the opening can admit a tracheostomy tube
1. Midline vertical skin incision made to identify cricothyroid notch. 2. Cricothyroid membrane incised horizontally, with # 11 blade, close to cricoid. 3. Knife handle inserted & rotated by 90 0, to widen the horizontal opening or tracheostomy tube is inserted. 4. Elective tracheostomy done as soon as possible to avoid subglottic stenosis.
Indicated for C.O.P.D. where tracheal opening is required for mechanical cleaning. Bilateral medial based skin flaps elevated & tracheal opening made. Distal edges of flaps sutured to margins of tracheal window. Lateral edges of 2 flaps sutured to each other to create watertight skin buttons.