3Girls. They Just to Have Fun A 19th century cartoon satirizing white women who dressed and acted like men in an attempt to further the cause of women's rights
4ObjectivesIdentify the limits faced by American women in the early 1800s.Trace the development of the women’s movement.Describe the Seneca Falls Convention and its effects.
5Terms and Peoplematrilineal – when inheritance is passed down through the female side of the familySojourner Truth – former slave from New York who gave spellbinding speeches on slaverywomen’s movement – movement beginning in the mid-1800s in the United States that sought greater rights and opportunities for womenLucretia Mott – abolitionist who was angered by the lack of equality for women; co-organizer the Seneca Falls Convention
6Terms and People (continued) Elizabeth Cady Stanton – abolitionist who pushed for suffrage; co-organizer of the Seneca Falls ConventionSeneca Falls Convention – held in New York in 1848, the first women’s rights convention in the United StatesAmelia Bloomer – publisher of The Lily who advocated for complete equality, including in dress; long pants worn under a skirt were nicknamed “Bloomers” in her honor6
7Terms and People (continued) suffrage – the right to voteMarried Women’s Property Act – 1848 New York State law that guaranteed greater property rights for women; used as a model in other states7
8This engraving from 1836 depicts the inside of a tailor shop This engraving from 1836 depicts the inside of a tailor shop. When an order was made, bolts of fabric weredelivered to seamstresses who would cut the fabric at their homes— for a fee 25-50% less than their male journeyman tailor counterparts.
9The 19th century American woman was expected to cook, clean, and take care of other household duties.
10A Wife's Need (Godey's Lady's Book) Without ignoring accomplishments, or casting a slur upon any of the graces which serve to adorn society, we must look deeper for the acquirements which serve to form our ideal of a perfect woman. The companion of man should be able thoroughly to sympathize with him — her intellect should be as well developed as his. We do not believe in the mental inequality of the sexes; we believe that the man and the woman have each a work to do, for which they are specially qualified, and in which they are called to excel. Though the work is not the same, it is equally noble, and demands an equal exercise of capacity.From Godey's Lady's Book, Vol. LIII, July to December, 1856
11What steps did American women take to advance their rights in the mid-1800s? In the early and mid-1800s, women took active roles in the abolition and other reform movements.Some also worked to gain equality for women, laying the groundwork for the equal rights struggle over the next hundred years.
12Women could not own property. Women rarely received a formal education.Women were deprived of the right to vote.Women could not hold office.In the 1800s, women’s rights and freedoms rights were severely limited.Women contributed to society privately by influencing their husbands and raising good children.12
13Some were also matrilineal societies, which permitted women to inherit family property and names. Some cultural groups living in America, Native American, African Americans, and Mexican Americans, traditionally allowed women more power and freedom.Most American women were denied these rights.
14New opportunities for women grew from the Second Great Awakening reform movements. Many women joined church- sponsored reform groups.Women played key roles in public education, abolition, temperance, and reforming the treatment of the mentally ill.Similarities in the plight of women and of slaves led many abolitionists to support women’s rights.14
15Famous Women Reformers Public school movement Catherine Beecher, Emma Willard, Elizabeth BlackwellTreatment of mentally ill Dorothea DixAbolition Sojourner Truth (at right); Angelina Grimké and Sarah Grimké
16Industrialization brought women into the workplace in the 1820s and 1830s. Factories and mills provided the first jobs that women held outside of the home.Though their pay was lower than men’s, and their husbands or fathers typically collected their wages, women developed a new degree of independence.Clip artBy the 1830s, some women had even joined labor unions and participated in strikes.16
17While women often stayed at home during the years preceding the Industrial Revolution, the advent of factories made many of her duties around the home obsolete as manufactured products replaced goods produced in the home.
18Although the Lowell mills had better conditions than British textile mills, workers still suffered long hours and excessive restrictions on their activities.Dear Father,I received your letter on Thursday the 14th with much pleasure. I am well, which is one comfort. My life and health are spared while others are cut off. Last Thursday one girl fell down and broke her neck, which caused instant death. She was going in or coming out of the mill and slipped down, it being very icy. The same day a man was killed by the [railroad] cars. Another had nearly all of his ribs broken. Another was nearly killed by falling down and having a bale of cotton fall on him. Last Tuesday we were paid. In all I had six dollars and sixty cents paid $4.68 for board. With the rest I got me a pair of rubbers and a pair of 50 cent shoes. Next payment I am to have a dollar a week beside my board...I think that the factory is the best place for me and if any girl wants employment, I advise them to come to Lowell.-Excerpt from a Letter from Mary Paul, Lowell mill girl, December 21, 1845.
19Still, little changed in the status of women until two trends coincided in the 1830s. Urban middle class women began to hire poor women to do their housework, allowing them time for activism.Women working for abolition began to compare their own condition with that of slaves.19
20The women’s movement began when a few men and women questioned the lack of rights and opportunities for women.In Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, the Grimké sisters argued that God made men and women equal.In Women in the Nineteenth Century, Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller argued that men and women were intellectually equal.20
21Two abolitionists led the call for full equality. Lucretia Mott, a Quaker, had helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.At an abolitionist convention in London, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were outraged by the limits placed on their participation in the proceedings.Elizabeth Cady Stanton21
22Hundreds of men and women attended, including Frederick Douglass. In 1848, Mott and Stanton organized the first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, often called the Seneca Falls Convention.Hundreds of men and women attended, including Frederick Douglass.Delegates adopted a “Declaration of Sentiments” modeled after the Declaration of Independence.Although it produced few real changes in women’s rights, the convention marked the beginning of the women’s movement in the United States.22
23Amelia Bloomer was so inspired at Seneca Falls that she went on to publish her own newspaper, The Lily, advocating women’s equality.She also advocated equality in dress: long pants worn under a shorter skirt came to be called “bloomers” after her.Also inspired by the convention was Susan B. Anthony, who would go on to become a leader in the suffrage movement—the most critical of all women’s political rights.23
24This act became a model for laws enacted in other states for many years. In 1848, New York passed the Married Women’s Property Act, guaranteeing women property rights for the first time.By the mid-1800s, a new course was set. Their gains were small and slowly won, but women’s fight for equality had begun.24