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Presentation on theme: "I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO MK. METIL-PDKL-PPSUB."— Presentation transcript:



3 The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) is an innovative, quarterly, interdisciplinary, international publication that focuses on empirical, methodological, and theoretical articles about mixed methods research across the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences. The journal's scope includes delineating where mixed methods research may be used most effectively, illuminating design and procedure issues, and determining the logistics of conducting mixed methods research. Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

4 Mixed methods research (also called mixed research) is becoming increasingly articulated, attached to research practice, and recognized as the third major research approach or research paradigm, along with qualitative research and quantitative research. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

5 A History of Mixed Methods Research We would position mixed research between the extremes Plato (quantitative research) and the Sophists (qualitative research), with mixed research attempting to respect fully the wisdom of both of these viewpoints while also seeking a workable middle solution for many (research) problems of interest. Today, the primary philosophy of mixed research is that of pragmatism. Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

6 Mixed research, in its recent history in the social and behavioral or human sciences, started with researchers and methodologists who believed qualitative and quantitative viewpoints and methods were useful as they addressed their research questions. For the 20th century, “mixed research” (in the sense of including what we, today, would call qualitative and quantitative data) can be seen in the work of cultural anthropologists and, especially, the fieldwork sociologists. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

7 Denzin (1978) defined triangulation as “the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon”. The four types of triangulation: 1.Data triangulation (i.e., use of a variety of sources in a study), 2.Investigator triangulation (i.e., use of several different researchers), 3.Theory triangulation (i.e., use of multiple perspectives and theories to interpret the results of a study), and 4.Methodological triangulation (i.e., use of multiple methods to study a research problem). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

8 Jick (1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation: 1.It allows researchers to be more confident of their results; 2.It stimulates the development of creative ways of collecting data; 3.It can lead to thicker, richer data; 4.It can lead to the synthesis or integration of theories; 5.It can uncover contradictions, and 6.By virtue of its comprehensiveness, it may serve as the litmus test for competing theories. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

9 Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989) identified the five purposes or rationales of mixed methodological studies: 1.Triangulation (i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of results from different methods studying the same phenomenon), 2.Complementarity (i.e., seeking elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results from the other method), 3.Development (i.e., using the results from one method to other method), 4.Initiation (i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a reframing of the research question), and 5.Expansion (i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

10 Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Sutton (2006) identified four rationales for conducting mixed research: 1.Participant enrichment (e.g., mixing quantitative and qualitative research to optimize the sample using techniques that include recruiting participants), 2.Instrument fidelity (e.g., assessing the appropriateness and/or utility of existing instruments, creating new instruments, monitoring performance of human instruments), 3.Treatment integrity (i.e., assessing fidelity of intervention), 4.Significance enhancement (e.g., facilitating thickness and richness of data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

11 Definitions of Mixed Methods Research Huey Chen: Mixed methods research is a systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study for purposes of obtaining a fuller picture and deeper understanding of a phenomenon. Mixed methods can be integrated in such a way that qualitative and quantitative methods retain their original structures and procedures (pure form mixed methods). Alternatively, these two methods can be adapted, altered, or synthesized to fit the research and cost situations of the study (modified form mixed methods). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

12 John Creswell: Mixed methods research is a research design (or methodology) in which the researcher collects, analyzes, and mixes (integrates or connects) both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or a multiphase program of inquiry. Steve Currall: Mixed methods research involves the sequential or simultaneous use of both qualitative and quantitative data collection and/or data analysis techniques. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

13 Isadore Newman: Mixed methods research is a set of procedures that should be used when integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures reflects the research question(s) better than each can independently. The combining of quantitative and qualitative methods should better inform the researcher and the effectiveness of mixed methods should be evaluated based upon how the approach enables the investigator to answer the research question(s) embedded in the purpose(s) (why the study is being conducted or is needed; the justification) of the study. (Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.) Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

14 Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration. This definition refers to mixed methods research as a type of research: A mixed methods study would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

15 Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypes of Mixed Methods Research Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

16 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research What are effective strategies for integration at different stages of the research process? Bazeley (2006) has carefully examined how to integrate qualitative and quantitative data using data analysis software. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2006) discussed the process of making metainferences (that are based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative strands in research studies). The key idea that mixed methods research requires some form of integration is clear; still, however, additional research is needed to further explicate this process. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

17 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Does mixed methods need a particular, detailed set of philosophical and methodological positions? Variation in particular philosophical commitments should be welcome in mixed methods research, and we should embrace these differences as an important part of the mixed methods research paradigm. It is important that arguments and discussion about “appropriate” philosophical commitments continue, so that the field is self- reflexive and continues to grow (philosophically). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

18 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Are equal status designs (equal use of quantitative and qualitative epistemologies) possible? To address specifically the issue of mixing ideas associated with research paradigms, we have introduced a concept called commensurability validity or legitimation, which is “the extent to which the meta-inferences made [in a mixed methods study] reflect a mixed worldview based on the cognitive process of Gestalt switching and integration”. The strong (or fully) mixed methods position, we argue, is developed only after explicit and systematic consideration of qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

19 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Should and how might qualitative dominant, equal status, and quantitative dominant mixed methods research be more fully developed and differentiated? Will the qualitative and quantitative dominant mixed research be explicitly incorporated into the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms or will they develop as distinct types? This should be an exciting area for future research as researchers and methodologists coming from different epistemological perspectives construct and systematize these subtypes. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

20 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research? That is, exactly 1.When and under what conditions should qualitative research be considered the appropriate approach, 2.When and under what conditions should quantitative research be considered the appropriate approach, and 3.When and under what conditions should mixed research be considered the appropriate approach? Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

21 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research? A strength of a contingency theory of research is that the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research are recognized, and all three approaches are considered to be important and needed, albeit in different circumstances. A contingency theory also needs to be carefully developed to help the mixed methods researcher make wise decisions about how to mix methods and approaches in relation to situational contingencies (e.g., given limited resources, what is the best combination to maximize usefulness of information and evidence?). Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

22 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research A fuller definition of mixed methods research might include reference to the logic of mixed research. We believe that additional work is needed to explicate this logic or set of logics. When designing a mixed study, according to this “logic,” the research should strategically combine qualitative and quantitative methods, approaches, and concepts in a way that produces complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses. Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches is required in relation to situational contingencies. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

23 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Tenth, will the field be able to develop a typology of mixed methods designs that can be broadly agreed upon? Currently, several typologies are available including, for example, Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), Morgan (1998), and Teddlie and Tashakkori (2006). Do the qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant, and pure mixed methods research need separate sets of designs? We tentatively suggest that the answer is yes. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

24 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Eleventh, and last, if one were to view mixed methods research, metaphorically, as the trunk of a tree, then what are its branches? For example, should the major branches be labeled QUAL+quan, QUAN+qual, and QUAN+QUAL? What other branches or specialized types might develop over time (e.g., transformative mixed methods, collaborative mixed methods, reflective mixed methods)? We expect many more specific types of mixed methods research and designs to crystallize in the future as researchers relate mixed methods research concepts and thinking to new and reoccurring research problems and situations. Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

25 A Multimethod Approach to the Study of Sensitive Organizational Issues Karen A. Jehn and Karsten Jonsen Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 313-341 Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 Sensitive organizational issues such as conflict, lying and deceit, and personal health issues are difficult to investigate because of their complex, elusive, and sometimes threatening nature as well as their potential consequences. In this article, an approach is presented that uses triangulation of multiple quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate sensitive organizational issues. This study of organizational conflict illustrates special data elicitation techniques (e.g., tree graphs, third-person questioning) designed to decrease the reluctance of employees to respond to various forms of inquiry. The qualitative approach complements the survey methods by identifying, categorizing, and verifying the existence of constructs. The benefits of the elicitation techniques, computerized text analysis, and multimethod comparison processes as remedies for research problems accentuated in studies of sensitive organizational issues are discussed.

26 Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction Pamela M. Wesely Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 295-312. Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students’ language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interview data, a statistical analysis of the survey data, and an integrated consideration of the qualitative and quantitative findings. It was found that mixed methods research can be uniquely revealing about social psychological constructs such as motivation, it can offer new perspectives where previous studies were contradictory, and it can accommodate multiple theoretical frameworks.

27 The Use and Added Value of Mixed Methods in Management Research José F. Molina-Azorίn. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 7-24 Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 The prevalence, characteristics, and added value of mixed methods articles published in two management fields are examined through a sequential mixed methods design with four phases. The results show that mixed methods articles are published in management journals with different prevalence rates and characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of the impact and added value of mixed methods to the field of management is carried out. Implications for scholars, academic institutions, and journals with regard to the application and publication of mixed methods research are examined.

28 Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care Services Valorie A. Crooks, Nadine Schuurman, Jonathan Cinnamon, Heather Castleden, Rory Johnston. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 77-95. Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 Drawing on recent debates pointing to the value of mixed methods research in human geography, the authors revisit a quantitative location analysis model previously created to site palliative care services in rural British Columbia, Canada. The original quantitative model posited that population (i.e., number of residents in the community), isolation (i.e., travel time to existing specialized palliative care), and vulnerability (i.e., number of residents older than 65 years in the community) are three factors that must be accounted for when siting palliative care services in rural areas. Using qualitative interview data, the authors refine this model to include a newly identified factor: community readiness. They conclude with a discussion of the benefits of adopting a mixed methods approach to location analysis model development.

29 A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses Felipe González Castro, Joshua G. Kellison, Stephen J. Boyd, Albert Kopak Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 342-360 Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors’ ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

30 Multiple Research Approaches. Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 IJMRA = International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches is an international peer-reviewed journal for timely publication of global research, scholarship, educational, researcher and practitioner perspectives on multiple, hybrid (outcome of unusual blending), synergistic (combined effect), integrated and cultural research approaches (be these Indigenous, institutional, or community based) including the Asian, Arctic, Pacific, Latin American and African regions, as well as European and North American. The journal's primary focus is effectively to combine various theoretical frameworks, methodologies and methods to address current research questions appropriately.

31 Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient satisfaction Sharon Andrew, Yenna Salamonson, Bronwyn Everett, Elizabeth J Halcomb, Patricia M Davidson. IJMRA 2011 5(1): 052 - 063. Diunduh dari: effect …… 22/9/2012 This study reports patient satisfaction with the nursing care on a neurosurgical critical care unit. A modified version of the Ludwig-Beymer Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-7) was used, and included structured items and semi- structured interview questions. Data were collected from 149 patients. Participants rated their satisfaction as high (Mean = 25.14; SD = 2.96). The distribution of scores was skewed and every item demonstrated a ceiling effect. Principal component analysis yielded a one-component solution which explained 48% of the variance. NVivo ® was used to match PSQ-7 scores with qualitative data. Participants' comments were categorised as positive, negative or 'yes, but'. Just over half the patients made positive comments and 29% of patients in the low group made negative comments. Three categories: 'communication', 'nursing care delivery' and 'the hospital environment' emerged from the qualitative data. A mixed method approach enables researchers to move beyond the ceiling effect of quantitative measures of patient satisfaction and to gain a more meaningful explanation of patient satisfaction.

32 Integrating qualitative and quantitative research approaches via the phenomenological method William Paul Fisher AND A Jackson Stenner IJMRA 2011 5(1): 089 - 103. Diunduh dari: qualitative-and-quantitative-research …… 23/9/2012 Separated and mixed applications of qualitative and quantitative methods are typically encumbered by markedly different philosophical orientations. Multiple inefficiencies arise when mixed methods work at cross purposes with each other. The phenomenological method, however, has the potential to integrate qualitative and quantitative concerns in ways that orient research towards uniform criteria of substantive meaningfulness and mathematical rigour. Three characteristics of a qualitative-quantitative methodological pluralism are described: structural invariance, substantive interpretability and the display of anomaly. When combined with networked information technologies, new opportunities emerge for a qualitatively meaningful and quantitatively precise measurement framework in the research and practice of the health sciences.

33 Tracking employees' twists and turns: Describing a mixed methods approach to assessing change in the psychological contract Sarah Bankins IJMRA 2011 5(3): 351 - 366 Diunduh dari: employees-twists-and-turns …… 21/9/2012 The psychological contract is a key analytical device utilised by both academics and practitioners to conceptualise and explore the operation of the employment relationship. However, despite the recognised importance of the construct, some authors suggest that its empirical investigation has fallen into a 'methodological rut' [Conway & Briner, 2005, p. 89] and neglects to assess key tenets of the concept, such as its temporal and dynamic nature. This paper outlines the research design of a longitudinal, mixed methods study which draws upon the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative modes of inquiry in order to explore the development of, and changes in, the psychological contract. Supported by a critical realist philosophy, the paper offers a research design suitable for exploring the processes of change not only within the psychological contract, but also similar constructs in the human resource management and broader organisational behaviour fields.

34 . Mixed method research designs: A case study of their adoption in a doctor of business administration program Peter John Miller, Roslyn Cameron IJMRA 2011 5(3) : 387 - 402 Diunduh dari: research-designs …… 23/9/2012 The paper presents empirical data concerning the utilisation of mixed method research in Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) research projects (theses). The Southern Cross University, Australia, DBA program was established in 1996 as a research degree and has successfully graduated over 250 graduates from a diverse range of countries across the globe. It is the largest DBA program in the Australasia. The research will present prevalence rates of mixed methods research utilised by doctoral candidates, data will be presented on the most frequently used data collection methods and research approaches within the field of business and management, with empirical data from a number of countries including Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Emergent issues with regard to the use of mixed methods research in business and management research and the teaching of mixed methods are discussed.

35 . Combined methods in poverty analysis: Experiences from Namibia Sebastian Levine, Benjamin Roberts IJMRA 2008 2(2): 205-211 Diunduh dari: methods-in-poverty-analysis …… 23/9/2012 We explore differences in the findings on poverty in Namibia from a series participatory poverty assessments and a household survey on household income and expenditure. We find that the main conclusions from these research processes appear plausible even if they point to diverging paths of poverty. These results are attributed to methodological challenges and especially to different perceptions about the determinants of poverty that each approach conveys. Using a Q-Squared approach we illustrate that when definitions of poverty based on the perceptions raised in the qualitative assessments are used on the quantitative data then the results tend to converge. One particularly interesting finding is that those identified as poor using the official poverty measure, established explicitly to capture deprivation in consumption expenditure, have higher average levels of consumption expenditure than a combined Q-Squared measure based exclusively on non-monetary criteria. We generally find that while there might have been a real improvement in consumption-based measures of poverty over time, given the emphasis on issues related to assets, access to and quality of delivery of basic services, and issues related to vulnerabilities (especially food insecurity and the AIDS epidemic) in the participatory poverty assessments, it is not surprising that the qualitative data point to deteriorating living conditions.

36 QUALITY & QUANTITY: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODOLOGY. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Quality and Quantity constitutes a point of reference for European and non-European scholars to discuss instruments of methodology for more rigorous scientific results in the social sciences. The journal publishes papers on models of classification, methods for constructing typologies, models of simulation, neural networks and fuzzy sets for social research, mathematical models applied to social mobility, mathematical models of voting behavior, qualitative methodology and feminist methodology, discussions on the general logic of empirical research, analysis of the validity and verification of social laws, and similar topics. Quality and Quantity is an interdisciplinary journal which systematically correlates disciplines such as mathematics and statistics with the social sciences, particularly sociology, economics, and social psychology.

37 Passenger satisfaction: a multi-group analysis Laura Antonucci, Corrado Crocetta, Francesco D. d’Ovidio and Ernesto Toma Quality & Quantity. 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11135-012-9771-7.. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 To analyse the level of passenger satisfaction of a public local transport service, after an explorative factorial analysis, a Structural Equation Model was adopted. The main goal of this paper is to verify how much some service characteristics could influence the perceived quality of the service. The passengers are found very sensitive to the level of the service organization and to the way the service is delivered (punctuality and regularity, and short waiting time). The safety and reliability of buses, the level of comfort and cleanness and the professionalism and courtesy of staff had, also, a big weight to determinate of the customer satisfaction. Applying a further analysis on different sub-samples, based on individual characteristics, we found that the model above identified is full invariant for different residence area and frequency of use of the service, and partially invariant for age groups, employment status, time slot of use and reason of use. The test of invariance the structural coefficients failed considering gender or education level of the passengers.

38 . Measuring the quality of work: the case of the Italian social cooperative Maurizio Carpita and Silvia Golia Quality & Quantity. 2012 46(6): 1659-1685 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Quality of work has within a short time become a major subject of study and discussion in labour economy. Its quantification is a challenging task because it implies the translation of various subjective perceptions into a single objective measure (composite indicator). In this paper, the method used to construct measures is the Rating Scale Model and the available data come from the Survey on Italian Social Cooperatives carried out in 2007. The validity of the obtained Rasch measures is tested with respect to some overall variables of the quality of work. Moreover, using inferential confidence intervals, these measures are utilized to evaluate the differences in the perception of the quality of work due to worker (gender, age and education) and cooperative (type, dimension and geographic area) characteristics, work characteristics (service area, membership, time and type of contract) and work incentives (economic, professional and learning).

39 Combining research techniques to improve quality service in hospitality Mar Vila, Xari Rovira, Gerard Costa and Ricard Santoma. Quality & Quantity. Volume 46. Number 3 / April 2012. P. 795-812. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Hospitality research includes many studies that combine and revisit the quantitative– qualitative debate, and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of qualitative methodologies based on the combination of techniques which also include quantitative elements in addition to those pertaining to qualitative techniques. The research aims to specifically identify the most important managerial factors which, from the point of view of hotel chain executives, serve to improve the quality of the service they provide. The techniques used are concept mapping and qualitative optimization, both of which are qualitative methodologies though they include quantitative elements to overcome the subjectivity deficits typically found in qualitative methodologies. In addition, the combination of both techniques leads to greater precision of the results obtained. Our methodological proposal combines concept mapping with qualitative optimisation, thereby improving the prioritisation and hierarchical ordering of the ideas obtained and structured. Instead of working with each cluster’s average score in terms of importance (as defined within the concept mapping model), our contribution is based on prioritising these based on their distance to the optimal reference. This allows for experts’ evaluations of each idea in terms of its importance to not be strictly quantitative, that is, the experts are not obligated to assign numbers to their evaluations; rather, they can assess ideas based on qualitative labels.

40 . A Multimethod Approach to Identifying Norms and Normative Expectations Within a Corporate Hierarchy: Evidence from the Financial Services Industry Stephen V. Burks and Erin L. Krupka Management Science January 2012 vol. 58 no. 1 203-217. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 We use an incentive-compatible economic experiment and surveys in the field at a large financial services firm to identify the norms for on-the-job behavior among financial advisers and their leaders, and the normative expectations each group has of the other. We examine whistle-blowing on a peer, an incentive clash between serving the client and earning commissions, and a dilemma about fiduciary responsibility to a client. We find patterns of agreement among advisers, among leaders, and between the two groups, that are consistent with company guidelines identified ex ante. However, we also find measurable differences between what leaders expect and the actual norms of advisers. When there is such a mismatch we are able to distinguish miscommunication from ethical disagreement between leaders and advisers. Finally, we show that when advisers' personal ethical opinions do not match group norms, this mismatch is correlated with job dissatisfaction and lying for money in a second experiment.

41 . MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 The nature of mixed methods design of the research Being a pragmatist, the current research methodology is a mixed methods research design. Mixed methods design is a type of research which involves ‘the collection or analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2008).

42 . MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 The nature of mixed methods design of the research According to Gray (2009), ‘mixed methods design is used in circumstances where relatively little or nothing is known about the research setting or research problems. In such situations, it would be unfeasible and impractical to design a questionnaire, since the constructs being measured are either unknown or not sufficiently understood. The qualitative study, then, explores, identifies and can provide clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further investigation.’

43 . Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture- Link in Innovation Management Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Two trends in innovation management have influenced the basic idea of this paper. The first trend shows increased attempts by managers to utilize linear innovation processes derived from literature and from practice. The second trend is an increasing acceptance of the dynamics created in an "innovation culture," as being one of the key drivers of innovation. Both approaches partially contrast each other. The missing link between innovation process design and innovation culture at the firm-level provides the theoretical framework of this paper. Behind the scenes of innovation management studies, we realized a methodological gap existed between the research of innovation cultures and their impact upon an organization's innovation processes. Thus, we applied a methodological mix of problem-centered interviews, structural analyses, and context analyses to study the phenomenon. We conducted an interview-based single case study in a Swiss telecommunications company. From these methodologies we created a themed landscape comprising relational topics of the innovation dynamics within an innovation project in the company (one year duration) and briefly described each topic. The main finding in our study is the dynamic role-model that innovation managers in large service firms have to apply to succeed in their innovation management work. Thus, our methodological mix proved to be helpful, although some weaknesses remain to be solved in the future.

44 . Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture- Link in Innovation Management Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

45 . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 As one prominent form of sustainable innovation, eco-efficient services have been promoted as a promising way towards more sustainable societies. However, they have not turned into reality as expected. This paper argues that one of the primary reasons for the slow market penetration of eco-efficient services is the mismatch between customers’ needs and service providers’ offerings. In order to start to bridge the knowledge gap, we investigate such customer needs through the analysis of interview and survey data obtained from over 300 potential customer companies in Finland, most of which operate either in the EU or globally. The paper discusses what kinds of eco-efficient services customers need and under what conditions, and which barriers hinder the use of eco-efficient services by business customers. The customer companies desire material efficiency services for managing side streams and non-core processes. They primarily seek cost and broader business-efficiency improvements from these services, and find that service providers should be able to construct a clear business case when marketing services. Finally, although there are material efficiency services in the market, customer companies find they are not being marketed actively.

46 . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Framework for the study: Factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services according to previous research.

47 Diunduh dari:…… 23/9/2012 Complemented framework: A comprehensive set of factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services.. The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

48 Diunduh dari: figure2.jpg…… 26/9/2012 EXPLORING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH (MMR)

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