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OLDER RELATIVES RAISING ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE OF CAREGIVER AND YOUTH DELINQUENT ACTS BY LYNN FREDERICK.

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Presentation on theme: "OLDER RELATIVES RAISING ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE OF CAREGIVER AND YOUTH DELINQUENT ACTS BY LYNN FREDERICK."— Presentation transcript:

1 OLDER RELATIVES RAISING ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE OF CAREGIVER AND YOUTH DELINQUENT ACTS BY LYNN FREDERICK

2 Relevant Question Do grandparents or older caregivers of youth have sufficient physical and social resources to provide what research says is needed to help the youth for whom they care to ameliorate delinquent behavior? Do grandparents or older caregivers of youth have sufficient physical and social resources to provide what research says is needed to help the youth for whom they care to ameliorate delinquent behavior?

3 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION LIFE COURSE THEORY: LIFE TAKES PLACE IN STAGES-DISRUPTION AT ONE STAGE MAY NEGATIVELY EFFECT LATER STAGES-BOTH POPULATIONS IN THE STUDY ARE EXPERIENCING THIS. LIFE COURSE THEORY: LIFE TAKES PLACE IN STAGES-DISRUPTION AT ONE STAGE MAY NEGATIVELY EFFECT LATER STAGES-BOTH POPULATIONS IN THE STUDY ARE EXPERIENCING THIS. GRANDPARENT CAREGIVERS TAKING ON A ROLE THAT IS OUT OF SEQUENCE, INCONGRUENT WITH OTHER ASPECTS OR REALMS OF THEIR LIVES. GRANDPARENT CAREGIVERS TAKING ON A ROLE THAT IS OUT OF SEQUENCE, INCONGRUENT WITH OTHER ASPECTS OR REALMS OF THEIR LIVES. YOUTH ARE OFTEN VICTIMS OF PRIOR TRAUMA AND ARE MOVED OUT OF THE PARENTAL HOME. YOUTH ARE OFTEN VICTIMS OF PRIOR TRAUMA AND ARE MOVED OUT OF THE PARENTAL HOME. CRIME IN THE LIFE COURSE THEORY ASSERTS THAT DISRUPTIONS IN THE LIFE COURSE EFFECT INIITIATION, PERSISTENCE AND DESISTENCE OF CRIME. CRIME IN THE LIFE COURSE THEORY ASSERTS THAT DISRUPTIONS IN THE LIFE COURSE EFFECT INIITIATION, PERSISTENCE AND DESISTENCE OF CRIME.

4 Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: Adolescents being raised by grandparents are more likely to engage in delinquent acts than adolescents being raised by parents. Hypothesis 1: Adolescents being raised by grandparents are more likely to engage in delinquent acts than adolescents being raised by parents. Hypothesis 2: Adolescents being raised by caregivers who are 55 and over are more likely to engage in delinquent acts than those raised by those under 55. Hypothesis 2: Adolescents being raised by caregivers who are 55 and over are more likely to engage in delinquent acts than those raised by those under 55. Hypothesis 3: Respondents raised by caregivers under age 45 are more likely to engage in delinquent acts. Hypothesis 3: Respondents raised by caregivers under age 45 are more likely to engage in delinquent acts.

5 AGING RESEARCH Majority of Elderly (65+) Well and Performing Daily Living Tasks Independently Majority of Elderly (65+) Well and Performing Daily Living Tasks Independently Many Suffer from Chronic Illnesses-Arthritis, 48%; Hypertension, 37%; Heart Disease, 30% (AARP 1993) Many Suffer from Chronic Illnesses-Arthritis, 48%; Hypertension, 37%; Heart Disease, 30% (AARP 1993) Some Evidence That Grandparent’s Health Status May Jeopardize Quality of Life of Both Grandparent and Youth (Whitley et al. 2001) Some Evidence That Grandparent’s Health Status May Jeopardize Quality of Life of Both Grandparent and Youth (Whitley et al. 2001) Decline in Financial, Transportation, Housing Resources Decline in Financial, Transportation, Housing Resources Women More Likely to be Caregivers of Young and Old Than Men Women More Likely to be Caregivers of Young and Old Than Men Co-occurrence of These May Lead to Elevated Stress Level Co-occurrence of These May Lead to Elevated Stress Level

6 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY RESEARCH J. D. is Multi-Determined Through the Reciprocal Interplay of Individual Youth and Key Social Systems in Which They are Embedded-Based on Findings from 50+ Years of Research (Elliott et al. 1985). J. D. is Multi-Determined Through the Reciprocal Interplay of Individual Youth and Key Social Systems in Which They are Embedded-Based on Findings from 50+ Years of Research (Elliott et al. 1985). A Small percentage are serious delinquents or persist in delinquency. These are often the early starters with early serious delinquency (Moffitt 1993). A Small percentage are serious delinquents or persist in delinquency. These are often the early starters with early serious delinquency (Moffitt 1993). Gang members are involved in a high percentage of the delinquent acts committed and youth decrease or desist delinquency when gang membership ends (Thornberry 1997). Gang members are involved in a high percentage of the delinquent acts committed and youth decrease or desist delinquency when gang membership ends (Thornberry 1997). Grouping Antisocial Youth Together is Harmful as it Leads to an Increase in Negative Behavior (Dishion 1999) Grouping Antisocial Youth Together is Harmful as it Leads to an Increase in Negative Behavior (Dishion 1999)

7 Literature on Grandparents Raising Grandchildren 5.4 Million children live in households headed by a grandparent 5.4 Million children live in households headed by a grandparent 2% of all children are cared for by a grandparent with no parent present (Census 1998) 2% of all children are cared for by a grandparent with no parent present (Census 1998) For 1.3 Million children, a grandparent is their caregiver (Minkler 2002) For 1.3 Million children, a grandparent is their caregiver (Minkler 2002) 1990-1998 50% increase in children being raised by their grandparents 1990-1998 50% increase in children being raised by their grandparents One in ten grandparents raise a grandchild for six months or more One in ten grandparents raise a grandchild for six months or more

8 The Children: -46% African American -46% African American -42% Caucasian -42% Caucasian -12% Hispanic -12% Hispanic (Minkler 2002)

9 Most do well under the care of grandparent: health, behavior in school, not academically per grandparent report (Solomon and Marx 1995). Most do well under the care of grandparent: health, behavior in school, not academically per grandparent report (Solomon and Marx 1995). A Later study showed youth in relative care were more likely to be suspended from school, regardless of family income status, than children in parent care (Billing et al. 2002). A Later study showed youth in relative care were more likely to be suspended from school, regardless of family income status, than children in parent care (Billing et al. 2002). Unpublished research using a more objective measurement tool than grandparent report shows that well-being of youth varies with the well-being of the grandparent (Smith 2009). Unpublished research using a more objective measurement tool than grandparent report shows that well-being of youth varies with the well-being of the grandparent (Smith 2009). Youth in kin care have a much greater likelihood of having experienced trauma prior to living with kin (Billing et al. 2002). Youth in kin care have a much greater likelihood of having experienced trauma prior to living with kin (Billing et al. 2002).

10 REASONS WHY YOUTH LIVE WITH PERSONS OTHER THAN PARENTS Parental substance abuse is the most common reason for kin assuming care of a child Parental substance abuse is the most common reason for kin assuming care of a child Other parental related reasons: Other parental related reasons: -child abuse/neglect -abandonment -financial-including unemployment, housing -divorce -poor health or death (AIDS a factor) -incarceration (6-fold increase for women 1980-1999 attributed to drug crimes (Minkler 2002)

11 THE CAREGIVERS Typical Caregiver: -Median age 59, over half over 60, modestly above poverty, married, White Typical Caregiver: -Median age 59, over half over 60, modestly above poverty, married, White (Minkler 2002) (Minkler 2002) African Americans, poor have an increasing likelihood of taking on this role (Chalfie 1994; Fuller-Thomson 1997; Harden 1997). African Americans, poor have an increasing likelihood of taking on this role (Chalfie 1994; Fuller-Thomson 1997; Harden 1997). Older African American caregivers may be even more challenged in caring for their grandchildren due to poorer health status (Whitley et al. 2001). Older African American caregivers may be even more challenged in caring for their grandchildren due to poorer health status (Whitley et al. 2001). Kin caregivers more likely to report symptoms of poor mental health than parent caregivers (Billing et al. 2002). Kin caregivers more likely to report symptoms of poor mental health than parent caregivers (Billing et al. 2002). Younger grandparent caregivers experience high levels of stress (Minkler et al. 1997; Fuller-Thompson et al. 1997; Szinovacz et al. 1999; Burnette 1999; Kelley et al. 2000). Younger grandparent caregivers experience high levels of stress (Minkler et al. 1997; Fuller-Thompson et al. 1997; Szinovacz et al. 1999; Burnette 1999; Kelley et al. 2000). Official kin foster caregivers are more likely to be older, poor, less educated and single than non-kin foster caregivers (Geen 2004). Official kin foster caregivers are more likely to be older, poor, less educated and single than non-kin foster caregivers (Geen 2004).

12 DISSERTATION Existing data from WAVE I of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994): nationally representative, largest and most comprehensive study of adolescents ever conducted, used by 1000 researchers, 3500 publications. Existing data from WAVE I of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994): nationally representative, largest and most comprehensive study of adolescents ever conducted, used by 1000 researchers, 3500 publications. Adolescents in grades 7-12 Adolescents in grades 7-12 Includes responses of adolescents to questions related to their level of delinquent acts and demographic data about the youth and family Includes responses of adolescents to questions related to their level of delinquent acts and demographic data about the youth and family The dependent variables are The dependent variables are 1)Commission of a violent delinquent act 1)Commission of a violent delinquent act 2)Commission of a non-violent delinquent act 2)Commission of a non-violent delinquent act (AddHealth included questions about commission of fifteen delinquent acts.) (AddHealth included questions about commission of fifteen delinquent acts.) The independent variables are: The independent variables are: 1) Caregiver aged 55 and over 1) Caregiver aged 55 and over 2) Caregiver aged under 45 2) Caregiver aged under 45 3) Relationship of caregiver to youth (grandparent) 3) Relationship of caregiver to youth (grandparent)

13 REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE Table 3.1 Youth Being Raised Solely by Grandparent(s)___________ AddHealth Public Use Data Base Population US Youth 122 (Out of N= 6504)1.9%2%* *Per Population Profile of the United States, US Census, 1999

14 Table 3.2_AddHealth Control Variables andCorresponding Late Age (12-14) Strong/Moderate/Weak Risk Factors for Onset of Violence/Drug Use/Delinquency AddHealth Surgeon General Report*** AddHealth Surgeon General Report*** Variable TopicsStrong Risk Factors Variable TopicsStrong Risk Factors (See Family, School, Peer Variables)Weak Conventional Ties (See Family, School, Peer Variables)Weak Conventional Ties Type of Influence of Best Friend, Prosoc.Act.Antisocial Peers Type of Influence of Best Friend, Prosoc.Act.Antisocial Peers NoneGang Member NoneGang Member Moderate Risk Factors Non-Violent Delinquent Acts*General Offenses Non-Violent Delinquent Acts*General Offenses Violent Delinquent Acts** Violent Delinquent Acts** Weak Risk Factors People Dislike You, People UnfriendlyAggression People Dislike You, People UnfriendlyAggression Poor Acad. Achieve/Grades, Repeated GradeSchool Attitude/Performance Poor Acad. Achieve/Grades, Repeated GradeSchool Attitude/Performance Mom/Dad-Close/Cared, Parent ConflictParent-Child Relations Mom/Dad-Close/Cared, Parent ConflictParent-Child Relations Learning Disabled, Recent CounselingPsychological Conditions Learning Disabled, Recent CounselingPsychological Conditions GenderGender-Male GenderGender-Male Peo. Know/Lookout for each other, Peo. Know/Lookout for each other, Tell Parents if Youth in TroubleNeighborhood Disorganization Tell Parents if Youth in TroubleNeighborhood Disorganization Drugs a Problem in NeighborhoodNeighborhood/Drugs Crime Drugs a Problem in NeighborhoodNeighborhood/Drugs Crime NoneAntisocial Attitudes/Beliefs NoneAntisocial Attitudes/Beliefs Non-violent Delinquent ActsProblem Behavior Non-violent Delinquent ActsProblem Behavior Youth is Mentally RetardedIQ Youth is Mentally RetardedIQ Number of CaregiversBroken Home Number of CaregiversBroken Home Caregiver Income, Enough $ to Pay BillsLow Family SES Caregiver Income, Enough $ to Pay BillsLow Family SES Youth Violence VictimChild Abuse ________________________________________________________________ Youth Violence VictimChild Abuse ________________________________________________________________

15 CONTINUED *In Violent Delinquency Model *In Violent Delinquency Model **In the Non-violent Delinquency Model **In the Non-violent Delinquency Model ***From: Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General (2001). Since the respondents were older adolescents and data about their early childhood was not generally available, Late Age (12-14) risk factors were used as a guide for control variable selection. This study did not attempt to assess all buffering factors per se. Academic/school related variables were used in the models for predicting non-violent and violent delinquency by respondents and concrete data was available to measure academic achievement and connection with school. IQ data was not available. Substance abuse has the same predictors as delinquency. ***From: Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General (2001). Since the respondents were older adolescents and data about their early childhood was not generally available, Late Age (12-14) risk factors were used as a guide for control variable selection. This study did not attempt to assess all buffering factors per se. Academic/school related variables were used in the models for predicting non-violent and violent delinquency by respondents and concrete data was available to measure academic achievement and connection with school. IQ data was not available. Substance abuse has the same predictors as delinquency.

16 METHODOLOGY BIVARIATE ANALYSES BIVARIATE ANALYSES 1) Youth commission of a violent delinquent act by relationship to caregiver 2) Youth commission of a non-violent delinquent act by relationship to caregiver 3) Youth commission of a violent delinquent act by age of caregiver 4) Youth commission of a non-violent delinquent act by age of caegiver

17 BASIC LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODELS: BASIC LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODELS: 1) Basic logistic regression model predicting youth commission of a violent delinquent act 2) Basic logistic regression model predicting a non-violent delinquent act

18 FULLY SPECIFIED MODELS FULLY SPECIFIED MODELS 1) Multivariate Logistic Regression Model Predicting Violent Delinquency 2) Multivariate Logistic Regression Model Predicting Non-violent Delinquency

19 BIVARIATE ANALYSES TABLE 4.1 Youth Reporting Commission of a Violent Delinquent Act In the Past Year By Relationship To Caregiver TABLE 4.1 Youth Reporting Commission of a Violent Delinquent Act In the Past Year By Relationship To Caregiver Sample Size Percent Sample Size Percent Total6314 No262442.07 Yes369057.93 Grandp. Total 123 No 5946.01 Yes 6453.99 Other Total 107 No 4843.21 Yes 5956.79 Parent Total6084 No358358.40 Yes250141.60 P-value.0019 Chi Sq. 12.56

20 BIVARIATE ANALYSES TABLE 4.2 Youth Reporting Commission a Non-Violent Delinquent Act In the Past Year By Relationship to Caregiver Sample Size Percent Total6311100 No173127.47 Yes458072.53 Grandp. Total122 No 35 25.84 Yes 87 74.16 Other Total 108 No 26 24.99 Yes 82 75.01 Parent Total6081 No1670 27.54 Yes4411 72.46 P-value.8059; Chi Square.43

21 BIVARIATE ANALYSES Table 4.3 Youth Reporting Having Committed a Violent Delinquent Act In the Past Year By Age of Caregiver Sample Size Percent Sample Size Percent Total5563 No323057.56 Yes233342.44 <45 Total3902 No221856.33 Yes168443.67 45-54 Total1468 No90561.47 Yes56338.53 55 & Over Total193 No 10754.48 Yes 8645.52 P-Value.0102; Chi Square 4.59

22 BIVARIATE ANALYSES Table 4.4 Non-Violent Delinquent Act In the Past Year By Age of Caregiver Total5563 No155927.97 Yes400472.03 <45 years Total3901 No111428.79 Yes278771.21 45-54 Total1469 No 38525.50 Yes108474.50 55& over 193 No 6028.97 Yes 133 71.03 P Value.1047 Chi Square Test 2.26

23 BASIC LOGISTIC REGRESSION:VIOLENT DELINQUENCY Table 4.5 Basic Logistic Regression Model Predicting Youth Commission of a Violent Delinquent Act Independent VariableCoeff.P-Value Grandparent.58.0224* Other.64.0086** <45.22.0025** 55 & over.11.5794 *P=<.05, **P=<.01, ***P=<.001

24 BASIC LOGISTIC REGRESSION: NONVIOLENT DELINQUENCY Table 4.6 Basic Logistic Regression Model Predicting Youth Commission of a Non-violent Delinquent Act Independent Variable Coeff. P-Value Grandparent.19.4851 Other.06.8361 <45-.16.0555 55& over-.24.2376

25 Fully Specified Model Model Predicting Violent Delinquency: Key Independent Variables not significant Fully Specified Model Model Predicting Violent Delinquency: Key Independent Variables not significant Fully Specified Model Predicting Non-violent Delinquency: Key Independent Variables Not Significant Fully Specified Model Predicting Non-violent Delinquency: Key Independent Variables Not Significant See handouts for tables showing fully specified models See handouts for tables showing fully specified models

26 TABLE IV Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis Predicting Violent Delinquency

27 Conclusions and Future There is some support for the hypothesis that youth raised by grandparents are more likely to commit a violent delinquent act There is some support for the hypothesis that youth raised by grandparents are more likely to commit a violent delinquent act There is much more to learn about outcomes for youth raised by grandparents There is much more to learn about outcomes for youth raised by grandparents Results of the study: Results of the study: -contribute to better understanding of the relationship between the caregivers of youth and delinquent behavior. -lend some support to further research on outcomes for youth cared for by grandparents


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