Presentation on theme: "“It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.” - Thomas Fuller, 1650 English Theologian & historian."— Presentation transcript:
“It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.” - Thomas Fuller, 1650 English Theologian & historian
What does this mean? How does Fuller’s quote relate to the Renaissance?
Chapter 1 Section 1 Raphael's School of Athens
The Black Death The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population Bubonic plague- 4 out of 5 people who contracted the disease died within 8 days (most common in the BD) Pneumonic- lungs % mortality rate Septicemic –bowels. mortality rate close to 100% World’s population went from 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400 Early 14 th century - late 15 th century: Early 1300s to late 1400s I. Background
Black Plague Renaissance Regions had to trade what they didn’t produce More Trade More Communication Decrease in population led to: –Increase in food production (Less People More Food) -Decline in food prices – More money to spend – Specialization in products -growing the right foods in the right climates
Where’s the action? Venice (trade) Milan (food, silk and weapons) Florence (banking) Time out! Think, Pair, Share why do you think that these cities in particular flourished during the Renaissance? Hint: Geography matters!!!! High Rollas!!!! Nobles (members of the Royal Court) Merchants (bankers) Artisans (crafts, painting, goldsmith) II. Key Places During the Renaissance III. Key Groups: Wealth
Show Me The Money! Conspicuous Consumption : With the acquisition of money merchants and nobles wanted to display their new wealth. = Lady With An ErmineLady With An Ermine- da Vinci
More Money= More Free Time Renaissance (French for “rebirth”)- sustained period of renewed interests and remarkable developments in learning and expression art literature science Was also a revival of the human spirit (the human capacity to create and achieve)
Causes of the Renaissance Increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades Growth of large, wealthy city-states in Italy Renewed interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome Rise of rich and powerful merchants, who became patrons of the arts Desire to beautify cities Increased desire for scientific and technical knowledge Ancient Rome’s Colosseum
The Humanism Factor Stressed a good education: rhetoric grammar poetry history Latin and Greek (languages) **aka “the humanities” Writers wrote in the vernacular (everyday language of the people) as opposed to the academic Latin.
What were some important new ideas/ trends of the Renaissance? How was life changing? Possible Answers: Inspiration from the ancient Greeks and Romans Humanism Secular focus New theories in science and think about what we have learned so far
VI. Politics After periods of war the church no longer served as a source of stability. People became more secular Attitudes about politics were also changing. Best examples were Thomas More’s Utopia and Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince The Prince Encourage harsh treatment of citizens and rival states. Advised rulers to separate morals from politics. Power and ruthlessness are more useful than idealism End justifies the means. State was an entity in itself, separate from its ruler Machiavelli
VII. Science Along with the humanities there was also an increased interest in astronomy, anatomy and other sciences. Galileo Galilei and Nicolas Copernicus- challenged the Church’s teachings and declared that the Earth was not the center of the universe (geocentrism) and that it actually revolved around the Sun (heliocentrism) Galileo was placed under house arrest by church officials for expressing his views Why would the church place someone that was teaching something that didn’t align with their teachings under house arrest? Galileo- “Father of Modern Science”
Scientific Information Humanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical texts Discovered a wealth of scientific information Scientific Challenges Science soon became important avenue of inquiry Church’s teachings about the world were challenged, particularly the belief that the Earth was the center of universe Natural World Focus of Renaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geography New ideas about natural world began to be explored by new methods, specifically empirical which learning by “doing” not “reading” Earth, Sun Nicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universe Galileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun
VIII. Renaissance Art!!!! In the past, medieval artists were commissioned by the church so most works were anonymous and religious. Why would they be anonymous? With the acquisition of assets, the wealthy competed against each other by buying art. (Medici=Rockefeller) Gave huge sums of money to help support the arts. Not looking for recognition, serving God, not themselves. Renaissance artists wanted to paint the natural world as realistically as possible.
More Renaissance Art!!!! Medieval Art Renaissance Art Religious Things found in nature Three-dimensional objects on flat surfaces More detail to human anatomy Perspective Not as focused on real life depiction Both of these works are of Mary and Jesus. Left (Medieval) Right (Renaissance) What differences do you see? Madonna of the Rocks- da Vinci Giotto’s Madonna and child
The Greats Leonardo da Vinci self -portrait 1. Painter a. The Last Supper b. The Mona Lisa 2. Writer 3. Architect 4. Engineer 5. Mathematician 6. Musician 7. Philosopher
Michelangelo Buonarroti 1. Sculptor a. The Pieta 1.) shows Mary, mother of Jesus, holding her son after his death 2.) communicates the themes of grief, love, acceptance, and immortality
David 1.) 13 foot marble statue – impressive 2.) unsurpassed representation of the human form – suppressed energy, depth of expression Minus the fig Leaf
Michelangelo (con’t.) 2. Painter a. Most famous for his artwork on the ceiling of the Sistene Chapel in Rome – art historians consider this one of the greatest achievements in the history of painting due to the personalized characterization of Biblical figures b. Created sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible. *Creation of Adam, below
iii. Raffaello Sanzio 1. aka Raphael 2. Painter a. The School of Athens 1.)his most famous work 2.) Fresco: painting made on fresh, moist plaster 3.) Shows Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers from the past and the present ==== b. Also known for his paintings of the Madonna, or mother of Jesus
iv. Donato Bramante 1. Famed architect – Renaissance architecture reached its height with him. 2. the chosen/ preferred architect of Rome 3. His design of St. Peter’s Basilica influenced the appearance of many smaller churches.