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“It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.”

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Presentation on theme: "“It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.”
- Thomas Fuller, 1650 English Theologian & historian

2 How does Fuller’s quote relate to the Renaissance?
What does this mean?

3 The Italian Renaissance 1300-1650
Chapter 1 Section 1 Raphael's School of Athens

4 I. Background The Black Death
Early 14th century - late 15th century: Early 1300s to late 1400s The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population World’s population went from 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400 Bubonic plague- 4 out of 5 people who contracted the disease died within 8 days (most common in the BD) Pneumonic- lungs % mortality rate Septicemic –bowels. mortality rate close to 100%


6 Black Plague  Renaissance
Decrease in population led to: –Increase in food production (Less People More Food) -Decline in food prices – More money to spend – Specialization in products -growing the right foods in the right climates Regions had to trade what they didn’t produce More Trade More Communication

7 Where’s the action? High Rollas!!!!
II. Key Places During the Renaissance Where’s the action? Venice (trade) Milan (food, silk and weapons) Florence (banking) Time out! Think, Pair, Share why do you think that these cities in particular flourished during the Renaissance? Hint: Geography matters!!!! III. Key Groups: Wealth High Rollas!!!! Nobles (members of the Royal Court) Merchants (bankers) Artisans (crafts, painting, goldsmith)

8 Show Me The Money! Conspicuous Consumption: With the acquisition of money merchants and nobles wanted to display their new wealth. = Lady With An Ermine- da Vinci

9 More Money= More Free Time
Renaissance (French for “rebirth”)- sustained period of renewed interests and remarkable developments in learning and expression art literature science Was also a revival of the human spirit (the human capacity to create and achieve)

10 Causes of the Renaissance
Increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades Growth of large, wealthy city-states in Italy Renewed interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome Rise of rich and powerful merchants, who became patrons of the arts Increased desire for scientific and technical knowledge Desire to beautify cities Ancient Rome’s Colosseum

11 The Humanism Factor rhetoric grammar poetry history
Stressed a good education: rhetoric grammar poetry history Latin and Greek (languages) **aka “the humanities” Writers wrote in the vernacular (everyday language of the people) as opposed to the academic Latin.

12 What were some important new ideas/ trends of the Renaissance
What were some important new ideas/ trends of the Renaissance? How was life changing? and think about what we have learned so far Possible Answers: Inspiration from the ancient Greeks and Romans Humanism Secular focus New theories in science

13 VI. Politics Machiavelli 
After periods of war the church no longer served as a source of stability. People became more secular Attitudes about politics were also changing. Best examples were Thomas More’s Utopia and Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince Machiavelli  The Prince Encourage harsh treatment of citizens and rival states. Advised rulers to separate morals from politics. Power and ruthlessness are more useful than idealism End justifies the means. State was an entity in itself, separate from its ruler

14 VII. Science Along with the humanities there was also an increased interest in astronomy, anatomy and other sciences. Galileo Galilei and Nicolas Copernicus- challenged the Church’s teachings and declared that the Earth was not the center of the universe (geocentrism) and that it actually revolved around the Sun (heliocentrism) Galileo was placed under house arrest by church officials for expressing his views  Galileo- “Father of Modern Science” Why would the church place someone that was teaching something that didn’t align with their teachings under house arrest?

15 Scientific Information
Humanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical texts Discovered a wealth of scientific information Scientific Challenges • Science soon became important avenue of inquiry • Church’s teachings about the world were challenged, particularly the belief that the Earth was the center of universe Earth, Sun Nicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universe Galileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun Natural World • Focus of Renaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geography • New ideas about natural world began to be explored by new methods, specifically empirical which learning by “doing” not “reading”

16 VIII. Renaissance Art!!!! In the past, medieval artists were commissioned by the church so most works were anonymous and religious. Why would they be anonymous? Not looking for recognition, serving God, not themselves. With the acquisition of assets, the wealthy competed against each other by buying art. (Medici=Rockefeller) Gave huge sums of money to help support the arts. Renaissance artists wanted to paint the natural world as realistically as possible.

17 More Renaissance Art!!!! Medieval Art Renaissance Art
Religious Things found in nature Not as focused on real life depiction Three-dimensional objects on flat surfaces More detail to human anatomy Perspective Both of these works are of Mary and Jesus. Left (Medieval) Right (Renaissance) What differences do you see? Madonna of the Rocks- da Vinci Giotto’s Madonna and child

18 The Greats 1. Painter a. The Last Supper b. The Mona Lisa 2. Writer
Leonardo da Vinci self -portrait 1. Painter a. The Last Supper b. The Mona Lisa 2. Writer 3. Architect 4. Engineer 5. Mathematician 6. Musician 7. Philosopher

19 Michelangelo Buonarroti
1. Sculptor a. The Pieta 1.) shows Mary, mother of Jesus, holding her son after his death 2.) communicates the themes of grief, love, acceptance, and immortality

20 David 1.) 13 foot marble statue – impressive
2.) unsurpassed representation of the human form – suppressed energy, depth of expression Minus the fig Leaf 

21 Michelangelo (con’t.) 2. Painter
a. Most famous for his artwork on the ceiling of the Sistene Chapel in Rome – art historians consider this one of the greatest achievements in the history of painting due to the personalized characterization of Biblical figures b. Created sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible. *Creation of Adam, below

22 iii. Raffaello Sanzio 1. aka Raphael 2. Painter a. The School of Athens 1.)his most famous work 2.)Fresco: painting made on fresh, moist plaster 3.) Shows Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers from the past and the present ==== b. Also known for his paintings of the Madonna, or mother of Jesus

23 iv. Donato Bramante 1. Famed architect – Renaissance architecture reached its height with him. 2. the chosen/ preferred architect of Rome 3. His design of St. Peter’s Basilica influenced the appearance of many smaller churches.

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