Presentation on theme: "“It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.”"— Presentation transcript:
1“It is always darkest just before the day dawneth.” - Thomas Fuller, 1650English Theologian & historian
2How does Fuller’s quote relate to the Renaissance? What does this mean?
3The Italian Renaissance 1300-1650 Chapter 1Section 1Raphael's School of Athens
4I. Background The Black Death Early 14th century - late 15th century:Early 1300s to late 1400sThe Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's populationWorld’s population went from 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400Bubonic plague- 4 out of 5 people who contracted the disease died within 8 days (most common in the BD)Pneumonic- lungs % mortality rateSepticemic –bowels. mortality rate close to 100%
6Black Plague Renaissance Decrease in population led to:–Increase in food production (Less People More Food)-Decline in food prices– More money to spend– Specialization in products-growing the right foods in the right climatesRegions had to trade what they didn’tproduceMore Trade MoreCommunication
7Where’s the action? High Rollas!!!! II. Key Places During the RenaissanceWhere’s the action?Venice (trade)Milan (food, silk and weapons)Florence (banking)Time out! Think, Pair, Share why do you think that these cities in particular flourished during the Renaissance?Hint: Geography matters!!!!III. Key Groups: WealthHigh Rollas!!!!Nobles (members of the Royal Court)Merchants (bankers)Artisans (crafts, painting, goldsmith)
8Show Me The Money!Conspicuous Consumption: With the acquisition of money merchants and nobles wanted to display their new wealth.=Lady With An Ermine- da Vinci
9More Money= More Free Time Renaissance (French for “rebirth”)- sustained period of renewed interests and remarkable developments in learning and expressionartliteraturescienceWas also a revival of the human spirit (the human capacity to create and achieve)
10Causes of the Renaissance Increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the CrusadesGrowth of large, wealthy city-states in ItalyRenewed interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece and RomeRise of rich and powerful merchants, who became patrons of the artsIncreased desire for scientific and technical knowledgeDesire to beautify citiesAncient Rome’s Colosseum
11The Humanism Factor rhetoric grammar poetry history Stressed a good education:rhetoricgrammarpoetryhistoryLatin and Greek (languages)**aka “the humanities”Writers wrote in the vernacular (everyday language of the people) as opposed to the academic Latin.
12What were some important new ideas/ trends of the Renaissance What were some important new ideas/ trends of the Renaissance? How was life changing?and think about what we have learned so farPossible Answers:Inspiration from the ancient Greeks and RomansHumanismSecular focusNew theories in science
13VI. Politics Machiavelli After periods of war the church no longer served as a source of stability.People became more secularAttitudes about politics were also changing.Best examples were Thomas More’s Utopiaand Niccolo Machiavelli’s The PrinceMachiavelli The PrinceEncourage harsh treatment of citizens and rival states.Advised rulers to separate morals from politics.Power and ruthlessness are more useful than idealismEnd justifies the means.State was an entity in itself, separate from its ruler
14VII. ScienceAlong with the humanities there was also an increased interest in astronomy, anatomy and other sciences.Galileo Galilei and Nicolas Copernicus- challenged the Church’s teachings and declared that the Earth was not the center of the universe (geocentrism) and that it actually revolved around the Sun (heliocentrism)Galileo was placed under house arrest by church officials for expressing his views Galileo- “Father of Modern Science”Why would the church place someone that was teaching something that didn’t align with their teachings under house arrest?
15Scientific Information Humanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical textsDiscovered a wealth of scientific informationScientific Challenges• Science soon became important avenue of inquiry• Church’s teachings about the worldwere challenged, particularly the belief that the Earth was the center of universeEarth, SunNicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universeGalileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited SunNatural World• Focus of Renaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geography• New ideas about natural worldbegan to be explored by new methods, specifically empirical which learning by “doing” not “reading”
16VIII. Renaissance Art!!!!In the past, medieval artists were commissioned by the church so most works were anonymous and religious.Why would they be anonymous?Not looking for recognition, serving God, not themselves.With the acquisition of assets, the wealthy competed against each other by buying art. (Medici=Rockefeller)Gave huge sums of money to help support the arts.Renaissance artists wanted to paint the natural world as realistically as possible.
17More Renaissance Art!!!! Medieval Art Renaissance Art ReligiousThings found in natureNot as focused on real life depictionThree-dimensional objects on flat surfacesMore detail tohuman anatomyPerspectiveBoth of these works are of Mary and Jesus. Left (Medieval) Right (Renaissance) What differences do you see?Madonna of the Rocks- da VinciGiotto’s Madonna and child
18The Greats 1. Painter a. The Last Supper b. The Mona Lisa 2. Writer Leonardo da Vinciself -portrait1. Paintera. The Last Supperb. The Mona Lisa2. Writer3. Architect4. Engineer5. Mathematician6. Musician7. Philosopher
19Michelangelo Buonarroti 1. Sculptora. The Pieta1.) shows Mary, mother of Jesus, holding her son after his death2.) communicates the themes of grief, love, acceptance, and immortality
20David 1.) 13 foot marble statue – impressive 2.) unsurpassed representation of the human form – suppressed energy, depth of expressionMinusthe figLeaf
21Michelangelo (con’t.) 2. Painter a. Most famous for his artwork on the ceiling of the Sistene Chapel in Rome – art historians consider this one of the greatest achievements in the history of painting due to the personalized characterization of Biblical figuresb. Created sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible.*Creation of Adam, below
22iii. Raffaello Sanzio1. aka Raphael2. Paintera. The School of Athens1.)his most famous work2.)Fresco: painting made on fresh, moist plaster3.) Shows Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers from the past and the present ====b. Also known for his paintings of the Madonna, or mother of Jesus
23iv. Donato Bramante1. Famed architect – Renaissance architecture reached its height with him.2. the chosen/ preferred architect of Rome3. His design of St. Peter’s Basilica influenced the appearance of many smaller churches.