Presentation on theme: "Reading an Advertisement. Fight breaks out at US OPEN /article-1308638/US-Open-2010-Spectator-"— Presentation transcript:
Reading an Advertisement
Fight breaks out at US OPEN /article /US-Open-2010-Spectator- brawl-interrupted-play-Flushing- Meadows.html /article /US-Open-2010-Spectator- brawl-interrupted-play-Flushing- Meadows.html
Systematic Invention Act: What happened? What is the action? What is going on? What action; what thoughts? Scene: Where is the act happening? What is the background situation? Agent: Who is involved in the action? What are their roles? Agency: How do the agents act? By what means do they act? Purpose: Why do the agents act? What do they want?
Systematic Invention Who What Where When Why How
Syllogism Major premise : A general statement. Minor premise : A specific statement. Conclusion : based on the two premises.
Conditional Syllogisms 1. General to particular. This is the kind most people think of when they think of deduction. For example, the classic syllogism: – All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. 2. General to General. Another kind of deduction arrives at new generalizations through the syllogism. For example: – All trees have root systems. All root systems need nitrogen. Therefore, All trees need nitrogen.
Do these work? 1. If you like molasses, grandma will buy you a bottle. But you don't like molasses, so grandma will not buy you a bottle.
Does these work? 2. The tires must be replaced if the wear indicators are showing. The tires must be replaced. Therefore, the wear indicators are showing.
Do these work? 3. If you were self-motivated, you would be a good student. But you aren't self-motivated, so you aren't a good student.
Do these work? 4. If George wanted a richer, fuller life, he would read good literature. Ah, I see he is reading some good literature now. He must want a richer, fuller life.
Do these work? 5. If lettuce is on sale today, Sally will make grinder sandwiches. Sally is not making grinder sandwiches; therefore, lettuce is not on sale today.
Do these work? 6. If Breenthorpe didn't get drunk all the time, the people would vote for him. But he does get drunk all the time, so the people won't vote for him.
Do these work? 7. You will scold the carpenter if he has made you a bad table. Therefore, this carpenter has made you a bad table because I see you are scolding him.
Do these work? 8. If it's after 10:00, the program has started. Ah, it is 11:30 now, so the program has started.
Do these work? 9. If this ice cream has peanut butter in it, I am allergic to it. Our tests confirm that it contains no peanut butter, so I am therefore not allergic to this ice cream.
Disjunctive Syllogism One of the alternatives is for formal reasons assumed to be necessarily true, so that to deny one leaves the other as the only possibility Either A or B Not A; therefore B
Do these work? 1. Either Freentop is a crook, or he is a very crafty individual. I know he is very crafty, so he is not then a crook.
Do these work? 2. Either Bleps are Snords or Vlots are Snords. Vlots are not Snords. Therefore, Bleps are Snords.
Do these work? 3. Either that statement is wrong or Jones is in error. But that statement is right, so Jones is in error.
Do these work? 4. Either I am perfectly logical or you are logical. And since I am indeed perfectly logical, you are not logical. What fallacy is this???
Do these work? 5. Either the oven does not work or I left out the baking soda. But the oven does work, so I left out the baking soda.
Conjunctive Syllogism In the major premise of this syllogism two propositions, called conjuncts, are presented, both of which cannot be true simultaneously A cannot be both B and C A is B; therefore A is not C
Do these work? 1. A lawnmower cannot be both durable and inexpensive. But this lawnmower is expensive, so it must be durable.
Do these work? 2. I cannot both go to a movie and finish my term paper. And I must finish my term paper. Therefore, I cannot go to a movie.
Do these work? 3. Norman has proved repeatedly that he cannot be both a high-speed driver and a safe, accident-free driver. He has just arrived safely from Albuquerque, so he surely drove at a reasonable speed.
Do these work? 4. No person can be both rich and poor. And that Helen is certainly not poor. So, she must be rich.