2 Puritanism“Puritanism. The haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy.” H.L. MenckenMajor Ideas:Persecuted in England for going against the Protestant church/governmentSought to “purify” the church.Religion was an individual, personal, and internal experience.The individual’s relationship with God was not determined by a member of the clergy or the government.Believed that all humans were damned, but that some were meant to be saved.Fate was pre-determined-- one couldn’t “save” oneself, but if one led a good life, one would be able to see the “signs” that meant one were savedOnly God’s grace was an individual’s salvation.Contract-based government—beginnings of democracy (Salem Witch Trials)Business was an important part of community, as was education
3 Puritan WritingBible=model as people searched for connections between their lives and biblical eventsEach individual’s life was a spiritual journey, so recorded in diaries and historical documents describing the workings of God.Known for plain style of writing emphasizing clarity and avoiding complicated figures of speech
4 Puritan Writers Anne Bradstreet William Bradford Mary Rowlandson Reverend Jonathan Edwards
8 Transcendentalism:Developed in the 1830s both in connection with, and in opposition to RomanticismTranscendentalism refers to the idea that in finding God, the universe, and the self/soul, one must transcend typical human experience in the physical worldMarked by a “return” to nature, and trust in intuition rather than deliberate rationality and intellectualism
9 TranscendentalismBelieved that self-reliance and individualism must outweigh external authority, and self-improvement leads to social improvementWorked to find the “permanent reality that underlies physical appearance”Optimism about the potential of individual lives and the universe
11 Famous Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson AKA Lead TranscendentalistHenry David Thoreau AKA neighbor and friend to L.T.Margret Fuller AKA one of the first major feminist writers in the USAmos Bronson Alcott AKA father to Louisa May Alcott
12 Henry David Thoreau 1817-1862, born in Concord, MA. Went to Harvard, very well-read, but many felt he squandered his talents and connections (including Emerson)Influenced by EmersonWent “into the woods” to journey inwards in a T. fashion. Built a small cabin on Emerson’s land two miles from town. Lived there for three years, writing, thinking, and studying life
13 ThoreauWrote “Resistance to Civil Government” while on Walden Pond after being arrested for not paying poll tax (supported Mexican-American War) because he felt it extended slavery.Died in Apparently asked on his deathbed if he’s made peace with God (by his aunt). His reply: “I didn’t know that we had ever quarreled.”
16 “Resistance to Civil Government” Response to being jailed for one night for not paying poll taxDiscusses the role of the individual in society and to his/her governmentEmploys rhetoric devices of: ethos, logos, pathosInspired authors and thinkers like MLK and Gandhi around passive/non-violent resistance
17 Ethos, Logos, PathosEthos is appeal based on the character of the speaker or moral or widely accepted values and/or standardsLogos is appeal based on logic or reason; it uses facts, examples, and well-reasoned arguments.Pathos: is an appeal based on emotion and language and anecdotes that arouse strong feelings.
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