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SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 1820’S- 1840’S.  Waves of religious excitement separated by long periods of religious calm  1740s: FIRST GREAT AWAKENING  1800-1850;s:

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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 1820’S- 1840’S.  Waves of religious excitement separated by long periods of religious calm  1740s: FIRST GREAT AWAKENING  1800-1850;s:"— Presentation transcript:

1 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 1820’S- 1840’S

2  Waves of religious excitement separated by long periods of religious calm  1740s: FIRST GREAT AWAKENING  1800-1850;s: SECOND GREAT AWAKENING  Enthusiasm; controversy; religious experiment.  Christian Perfectionism Belief that salvation can lead to a sinless life: “heaven on earth”  Millennialism Christ’s return to earth will begin a thousand year reign 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING

3  Religion began to influence other ideals such as freedom from cruelty of war, discrimination, intoxicated drinking, and slavery  Idealistic religion on a utopian socialism, moral reform, and other ideas came to Christianity 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING

4  Are people free to re-invent Religion?  William Ellery Channing developed concept of Unitarian Faith  Ralph Waldo Emerson became a Unitarian UNITARIANISM:  Rejects “Trinity” (insists on “Unitary” God)  Rejects Jesus’ “divinity”  Rejects Centrality of Jesus’ Crucifixion & Resurrection  Belief was in free will and possibility of salvation through good works  Insists on right of individual to mold his or her own religion UNITARIANS

5 DIVISIVENESS CAUSED BY THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING  Second Great Awakening widened lines between class and region  Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians --> Wealthy classes and better-educated  Big Boundary between Northern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists; and Southern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists.  This split between North and Southern Faith and ideals in religion was considered the first sign of splitting. Later followed by a split in politics and the Union.  Protestants encouraged increase in educational learning and also importance of education in every household  Most importantly led to a moral reform movements, especially in the North

6  Who were they? Intellectuals Primarily from New England Middle class  What did they believe? Individualism Self-reliance Dissent Non-conformity “transcend” to the ideal world of reality Anti-industrialism  Prominent Transcendentalists  Ralph Waldo Emerson  Henry David Thoreau  Walt Whitman  Nathaniel Hawthorne  Herman Melville  Edgar Allen Poe  Emily Dickenson  Margaret Fuller TRANSCENDENTALISTS

7  Ralph Waldo Emerson  “behind the concrete world we can transcend to the ideal world of reality”

8 TRANSCENDENTALISTS  Henry David Thoreau  Live life simply  Chronicled his experiences in Walden

9 TRANSCENDENTALISTS THE POETS Walt WhitmanEmily Dickinson Edgar Allen Poe

10 TRANSCENDENTALISTS THE NOVELISTS Nathaniel HawthorneHerman Melville

11 TRANSCENDENTALISTS  Margaret Fuller  Believed in transcendentalism for all  Early advocate for women’s rights

12  Who were they? Transcendentalists looking for the perfect society  What did they believe? Communal societies Each person contributes Agricultural communities Resources went to the group Generally religious in nature Education was important Wanted to live life their way  Some of the most prominent utopias  Brook Farm, Massachusetts  Oneida, New York  Also included some religious groups  Shakers  Mormons UTOPIANS

13 ONEIDA COMPLEX

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15 ONEIDA COMMUNITY

16 GEORGE RIPLEY’S TRANSCENDENTALIST COMMUNE

17 SHAKER BELIEFS AND PRACTICES FROM MOTHER ANN LEE Pacificism Celibacy Work Dance Song Collective Ownership

18 MOTHER ANN LEE

19 SHAKER COMMUNITIES

20 MORMONISM  1830- Joseph Smith, a visionary, reported an encounter with an angel  Deciphered the Book of Mormon from golden plates given to him  Founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints  Had leaders that were dedicated to free enterprise  Voted as a unit and produced their own militia  Moved from New York to Ohio  Intended to build “Zion” in western Missouri  Expelled from Missouri to Nauvoo, Illinois  Joseph Smith arrested; executed by mob  Brigham Young becomes the leader  Polygamy became a problem for the LDS  Movement to Utah - use of irrigation system in desert of Utah

21 MORMON LEADERS Joseph SmithBrigham Young

22  Zion in the Wilderness  Petitioned for territory of “Deseret”  Granted Utah Territory  Had to renounce polygamy to earn statehood  Successful due to unity and leadership GREAT MORMON TREK

23  Named after William Miller, self-taught Bible Scholar  Interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return to earth on October 22, 1843.  Called the “Great Disappointment”  The failure of Jesus to descend on schedule dampened but did not destroy the movement.  Determined the event happened in heaven not on earth  Seventh Day Adventists MILLERITES

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26 WOMEN’S MOVEMENT  Women pursued rights for themselves and others  Issues Property ownership Custodial rights Marriage/Divorce rights Legal rights in court Suffrage  Other issues Treatment of the less fortunate Temperance Slavery

27 DOROTHEA DIX

28 THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION

29  Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton  Held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York  Advocated equality in Family Education Jobs Religion Morals  Issued a “Declaration of Sentiments” (modeled after the Declaration of Independence)

30 SUSAN B. ANTHONY  Advocated Women’s suffrage Temperance Abolition of slavery

31 TEMPERANCE  Social movement against the use of alcohol  American Temperance Society formed in 1826  Felt it violated religion and morality  Was almost exclusively a Protestant issue (not Catholic)

32 WHAT DOES THIS CARTOON MEAN?

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38 DEHUMANIZATION OF INDUSTRIALISM VS. UTOPIAN IDEALS

39 HOW ARE WOMEN’S ROLES CHANGING AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT SOCIETY?


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