Presentation on theme: "ELEMENTS OF ARGUMENT Argumentative Writing. The Claim Is the statement of belief or truth that is worthy of argument Is both debatable and defensible."— Presentation transcript:
The Claim Is the statement of belief or truth that is worthy of argument Is both debatable and defensible Answers the question “What is your point?” May be qualified to make the claim more precise.
Examples of claims Apples are the best fruit. Dogs are better than cats. Boys are better than girls. You should keep your hands off your face. Derek Jeter is the best athlete of all times. The federal government should cut entitlement programs.
The Evidence Provides the grounds for making the claim Answers the questions “What make you say so ?” Or “What do you have to go on?” SHOW ME THE EVIDENCE!!!!
Examples of Evidence Claim- Apples are the best fruit. Facts about the number consumed each year Eaten by different age groups Comparisons to other fruits (oranges, grapes) Examples of various ways they can be eaten and prepared Significance in American sayings: An apple a day keeps a doctor away What nutritionists say Cost, availability, health benefits
Warrant or Backing Connects the evidence to the claim, explaining why the evidence leads the writer to make the claim. Makes the claim plausible Answers the questions “So what?” or “Why does you evidence matter?” Is often a general rule or principle Can be either widely accepted of controversial Warrants themselves may require support (known as backing)
Examples of Warrant and Backing Apples are the best fruit. It’s only a good fruit if it’s consumed. Must be available, affordable to all It’s important to improve our health.
Counterclaim Objections to the writer’s claim either in part or whole. Shows the writer’s awareness of all sides to an argument. What would those who disagree with the claim say?
Examples of a counterclaim Apples are the best fruit. They are difficult to eat. There are too many varieties. High in sugar. Takes a while to digest.
Response Explains the limitations, errors, and/or flaws in the counterclaim. Strengthens the writer’s argument by eliminating or dismissing the alternatives. What can you say to dismiss the each counterclaim?
Examples of a Response Even though people say they are difficult to eat, apples are easy to transport and you can cut the fruit into pieces. Apples contain fiber that is good for digestion. They do contain sugars, but most can be found in the juice made from the fruit not eaten as a whole.
Claim Dogs are better than cats. Science has proven people with pets life a longer and fuller life. However, dog are better pets than cats.
The Evidence Dogs will come when called, are dependable, and can be trained for many uses.
Warrant and backing For example, dogs can be trained to assist the handicapped, police officers, and the military.
Counterclaim Even though cats are more self sufficient and can help control the rodent population, …..
Response and link back to claim … dogs provide companionship, security, and unconditional love thus providing people with an opportunity for a longer and fuller life.