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Pedagogy for employability Including: Using questions Discovery learning Case studies Peter Scales Lifelong Learning Further and Higher Education

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Presentation on theme: "Pedagogy for employability Including: Using questions Discovery learning Case studies Peter Scales Lifelong Learning Further and Higher Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pedagogy for employability Including: Using questions Discovery learning Case studies Peter Scales Lifelong Learning Further and Higher Education

2 What is employability? If you were an employer, what skills, qualities, attributes, abilities would you expect from an employee?

3 “Employability is, at heart, a process of learning.” (Harvey, Locke and Morey, 2002: 2) For companion paper “Employability: a process of learning” see:

4 “We take as a premise that there is no necessary conflict between employability and traditional academic values. Good teaching and learning practices can serve both kinds of end...” (Knight and Yorke, 2003)

5 How can your students develop these skills, etc.?

6 Employability Reflection and PDP Graduate attributes Deep learning Constructivist T & L methods Complex learning

7 Pedagogy for employability We will consider some teaching and learning methods can foster employability, e.g.  Questioning  Case study  Discovery

8 Why do teachers ask questions? Management and control Keep students interested and alert Gain attention/ check paying attention Check understanding and pitch sessions at an appropriate level Recall of information Revise

9 Why do teachers ask questions? Develop thinking skills Encourage discussion Encourage discovery Stimulate new ideas Draw learners into the lesson Symbolic value - sends message that learners are expected to be active participants in learning

10 Closed questions Usually only one correct answer Can usually be answered with one word – usually yes or no The initiative is forced back on the questioner. No need for answerer to extend or develop Example: “Do you come here often?”

11 Open questions  May have several possible answers  Requires the answerer to provide a fuller response than just one word  Can develop discussion and develop thinking  Example: “What’s a nice person like you doing in a dump like this?”

12 Lower-order and higher order questions Lower-order questions Higher-order questions Require students to remember Require students to think

13 Linked (or Socratic) questioning This style of questioning is based on the belief that people already know a lot. The purpose of education is to draw it out of them. “Socratic questions provide a stimulus for thinking and responding, and Socratic questioning differs from random open-ended questioning in that it follows a pattern, a progression of follow-through questions that probe reasons and assumptions and which take the enquiry further” Fisher, R. (2003)

14 Linked? Socratic questioning – an example Why is there a cliffhanger at the end of a soap opera?  To make sure people keep watching Why is it important that people keep watching?  To maintain high viewing figures Why do TV companies need high viewing figures?  To attract advertisers What do advertisers provide?  Income And what do the TV companies do with the income?  Make more programmes

15 “Can you explain that…”?Explaining “How does that help…?”Supporting “Do you have evidence…?”Evidence “What if someone were to suggest that…?”Alternative views “Does it agree with what was said earlier…?” Consistency “How does what was said/ the question help us…?”Connecting Examples of questions to develop Socratic dialogue

16 Using Bloom’s taxonomy to encourage different levels of questioning Comprehension Synthesis Analysis Application Knowledge Evaluation

17 Discovery learning “The learning that takes place when students are not presented with subject matter in its final form [expository learning] but rather are required to organise it themselves. This requires learners to discover for themselves relationships among items of information.” Lefrancois (2000) p158

18 Discovery learning “Discovery learning involves confronting the learner with a problem and allowing them to explore the problem and try out solutions on the basis of inquiry and previous learning under the guidance of a teacher” Armitage, et al (2003) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education

19 Discovery learning Discovery as ‘process’  Learning how to learn  Metacognition  Transferable skills Discovery as motivation  A better way to learn a prescribed knowledge and/or skills

20 An example of discovery learning Vocabulary building Much of our language is based on Greek and Latin roots, prefixes and suffixes. This is particularly true of academic, especially science-based, subjects. If students have a stock of word roots, prefixes and suffixes, they should be able to work out the meanings of unfamiliar words.

21 Discovery – vocabulary building Prefixes (Latin) a, ab, abs = from, away con, com = with, together inter = between, among, in between re = back, again Greek auto = self poly = many See: d_Latin_roots_in_English for a comprehensive list

22 Case studies What is a case study? “… student-centred activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting.” (The Higher Education Academy – Guides to Lecturers)The Higher Education Academy – Guides to Lecturers A history of an event or set of circumstances where relevant details are examined by learners

23 Case studies Case studies fall into two broad categories:  Those in which learners diagnose the causes of a particular problem or draw conclusions about a certain situation.  Those in which the learners set out to solve a particular problem

24 Case studies What skills are developed by the use of case studies?  Group working  Study skills  Information gathering (in long-term case study)  Analytical skills  Thinking skills  Time management skills  Presentation skills  Practical skills (in practical case study)

25 References Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunhill, R., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., Kent, J., Lawes, S. and Renwick, M. (2003) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education Buckingham: Open University Press Fisher, R. (2003) Teaching Thinking London: Continuum Harvey, L., Locke, W. and Morey, A. (2002) Enhancing employability, recognising diversity (Executive Summary) Universities UK Knight, P and Yorke, M. (2003) Employability and Good Learning in Higher Education Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 8, No. 1 Lefrancois, G. (2000) Psychology for Teaching (10 th Ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning

26 Links Pegg, A., Waldock, J., Hendy-Isaac, S. and Lawton, R. (2012) Pedagogy for Employability York: Higher Education Academy or_employability_update_2012.pdf Pedagogy for Employability Group (2006) Pedagogy for employability York: Higher Education Academy gogy_for_employability_357.pdf

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