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(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved The Revolutionary Republic Chapter 6.

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1 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved The Revolutionary Republic Chapter 6

2 Hearts and Minds: The Northern War, 1776-1777 Rulers of Britain felt that loss of colonies would be fatal blow to British power Britain raised more soldiers and fleets –Doubled its national debt (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

3 The British Offensive Americans driven from Canada Richard and William Howe George Washington Battle of Brooklyn Heights Fall of New York City Mass desertions from Continental army New Jersey and Rhode Island fall to British (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

4 The Trenton-Princeton Campaign Christmas attack on Hessians at Trenton Charles, Earl of Cornwallis Princeton British mistakes –Not pursuing and destroying Washington –Abandoning Loyalists –Hessian war crimes (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

5 The Campaigns of 1777 and Foreign Intervention (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved British strategy –Lacked coherence –Howes take Philadelphia –Burgoyne and Clinton meet in interior New York

6 The Loss of Philadelphia Howes march North from Maryland to take Philadelphia Washington abandons Philadelphia Valley Forge –Frederich Wilhelm, Baron von Steuben: drillmaster for the Continental army –Marquis de Lafayette –1/5 th of Continental officers were foreign mercanaries

7 Saratoga John Burgoyne takes Ticonderoga, moves toward Albany John Stark and the New Hampshire militia Horatio Gates –Bemis Heights (1777) Saratoga: Burgoyne surrenders (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

8 French Intervention French want revenge for loss of 7 Years War Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais and French aid Benjamin Franklin and Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes: Franco-American alliance Reasons for French entry –Afraid fall of Philadelphia might weaken resolve of colonists to continue fighting –Saratoga convinced them that colonists could win (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

9 Spanish Expansion and Intervention Spanish want revenge for loss of 7 Years War Louisiana still largely French, even under Spanish rule California –Spaniards explored California coastline –Junípero Serra Spain goes to war with Britain 1779 Spanish Florida again (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

10 The Reconstitution of Authority Intense debate in America on constitutionalism Written constitution important Fuller expressions of popular sovereignty –Power is derived from the people (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

11 John Adams and the Separation of Powers Thomas Paine and unicameral government Constitutional Conventions: “popular sovereignty in its purest form” Adams responds with Thoughts on Government –separation of powers –virtue (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

12 The Virginia Constitution June 1776, Virginia –first state to adopt a permanent, republican constitution –Sovereign legislature George Mason and Virginia’s Bill of Rights Many states adopted variations of Virginia’s model constitution (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

13 The Pennsylvania Constitution Quaker and Proprietary Parties Constitutional Convention 1776 “Constitutionalists” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

14 Massachusetts Redefines Constitutionalism Resentment of the “River Gods” Berkshire Constitutionalists –convention General Court –bill of rights (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

15 Confederation John Dickinson and the “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union” –State sovereignty and equality –Congress must requisition money from states Ratification process –All had to agree –Stalls over western land claims –Approved 3-1-1781 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

16 The Crisis of the Revolution, 1779-1783 Americans, with French assistance, expected a quick victory War of attrition Loyalists: important to British war efforts British looked to Carolinas for support (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

17 The Loyalists Many colonists were conflicted: –new American union vs. part of British empire Risks for loyalists living in American colonies One-sixth of white population chose British side of the war –19,000 men joined loyalist military units State government banished loyalists and confiscated their property (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

18 Loyalist Refugees, Black and White Slaves outside New England sided with Britain British government freed thousands of slaves Loyalists refugees, mostly to Canada American Revolution laid groundwork for 2 Western hemisphere rivals—Canada and the U.S.A. (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

19 The Indian Struggle for Unity and Survival Most Indians believed only hope to stop colonist’s expansion was British victory Iroquois –Mohawks –Joseph Brant –Wyoming Valley Shawnees –Cornplanter Indian unity George Rogers Clark (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

20 Attrition British war weary after 1778 British army is desperate for soldiers –Recruited many Irish Catholics –Resulted in Protestant violence: Gordon riots Attrition weakened American forces and undermined economy Continental dollar collapses Continental soldiers left unpaid, ill-clothed, poorly fed, and mutinous (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

21 The British Offensive in the South British success in Georgia George Clinton –Benedict Arnold –Banastre Tarleton –Failure of Northern attacks Cornwallis –Carolinas (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

22 The Partisan War King’s Mountain (1780) Nathanael Greene Francis Marion “the Swamp Fox” Battle of Cowpens Battle of Guilford Court House Cornwallis back to Wilimington (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

23 Mutiny and Reform Mutinies in New Jersey Congress abandons wartime economic controls and restores market Robert Morris –Bank of North America Congress still weak, no laws, only ordinances (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

24 The Ravaging of Virginia to Yorktown and Peace British invade Virginia Voluntarism falters Yorktown: Britain’s final defeat –Washington’s plan: trap Cornwallis at Yorktown –François, comte de Grasse and Battle of the Capes –Jean Baptiste Donatien, comte de Rochambeau Lord North resigns (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

25 Independence Treaty of Paris (1783) British recognize United States independence Mississippi as Western boundary of United States Prewar debts still valid Congress must urge states to restore confiscated loyalist property Post war problems Indians don’t accept Treaty Army discontent and near mutiny

26 A Revolutionary Society Independence transformed American life Biggest winners: free householders –Gained enormous benefits from democratization of politics and chance to colonize Great West Biggest losers: loyalists and Indians Winner when their interests coincided with winners –Slaves –Women (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

27 Religious Transformations Anglican Church “disestablished” in Southern states Thomas Jefferson –Statute for Religious Freedom Congregational church “established” in New England Office holding generally restricted to Christians or Protestants Toleration extended to Catholics and Jews –Bishop John Carroll 1790 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

28 The First Emancipation Revolutionary Era: freedom for many slaves Some freed because of Revolutionary War Courts say Massachusetts and New Hampshire slaves can walk away to freedom Pennsylvania 1780: first gradual emancipation statute, model for slave emancipation in North Manumission of slaves allowed in Virginia and Maryland Slaves were essential to plantation economy and a valuable asset in the South (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

29 The Challenge to Patriarchy War gave women more responsibility and power Coverture Philadelphia Ladies Association (1780) –Esther de Berdt Reed Republican Motherhood and the spread of women’s education (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

30 Western Expansion, Discontent, and Conflict with Indians Daniel Boone and the Cumberland Gap Postwar settlement boom Spain and Britain fuel Indian resistance Secessionist Movements –Franklin –James Wilkinson –Green Mountain Boys (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

31 The Northwest Ordinance Land Ordinance of 1785 –Surveyed and divided land into townships –Ohio Company and apparent speculator triumph Northwest Ordinance of 1787 –3-5 states equal to original 13 –Congressionally appointed governor, locally elected assembly after population of 5000 –At 60,000 population, could apply for statehood –Public funded education –No slavery (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

32 A More Perfect Union Difficult times: 1780s –Failing economy –Debtors vs. creditors –Bitter state politics Demand to amend the Articles of Confederation (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

33 Commerce, Debt, and Shays’s Rebellion Depression and debt Paper money and debt “stays” Massachusetts, high taxes, and Governor James Bowdoin Daniel Shays (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

34 Cosmopolitans versus Localists Cosmopolitans –Urban classes, large scale farmers and planters, Continental Army officers –Aggressive trade policy, hard money, payment of public debts, high salaries for appointed officials Localists –Rural classes –Paper money and debt relief Localist win, but speculators thrive Jay-Gardoqui Treaty –John Jay Washington and other cosmopolitans call to strengthen central government (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

35 The Philadelphia Convention Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan –William Paterson Connecticut Compromise Government of laws enforced on individuals through federal courts Electoral College 3/5 ths compromise Necessary and Proper clause State ratification conventions (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

36 Ratification Federalists Anti-Federalists (localists) The Federalist –Federalist No. 10 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

37 Conclusion White America affirms liberty and equality rarely extended to Indians and blacks Discontent of postwar years led to Federalist coalition New national Constitution replaces Articles of Confederation Federalists endowed new central government with greater power American Federalist system (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved


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