Group Therapy Individual Counseling Sober Living Higher Power Assessment Alcohol/Drug Psyhosocial
Recovery housing Healthy milieu Self help meetings Church From isolation to living “one day at a time” in the presence of others striving for a more fulfilling life
Stimulates production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Neurotrophin that governs maturation and development of neural systems Enhances executive functioning Obey social rules Adapt to changing & unpredictable environment Short term working memory Multi-tasking Self-directedness
Association between DA D2 receptor numbers and drug self-administration Increased D2 receptors reduced alcohol consumption Decreased D2 receptors higher risk DA D2 receptor levels influenced by stress and social hierarchy Helps explain influence of environment and genes
Subordinate animals more likely to self- administer cocaine Dominant animals no more likely to self- administer cocaine than placebo Social interventions can change neurobiology Increased DA D2 receptors Reduced self-administration Behavioral interventions could counteract the aversive effects of drug abuse and reinforce the power of group approaches
Group Therapy Active participation Successful completion of assignments Milieu Leadership Modeling Self help Coffee and chairs “Telling story”
Acute intoxication results in activation and deactivation of regions connected to the DA system These regions are involved in REWARD MEMORY MOTIVATION/DRIVE CONTROL
Reward Circuit-Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Pallidum Motivation/Drive Circuit-Orbitofrontal Cortex Memory & Learning Circuit-Amygdala and Hippocampus Control Circuit-Prefrontal Cortex & Anterior Cingulate Gyrus
Location Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) Impact of drugs of abuse Increased extracellular levels of DA in striatum (NAc) Reinforcing effects related to: Magnitude of DA increase Abruptness of DA increase Reduced sensitivity to natural reinforcers
In presence of: › Alcohol and drugs › Alcohol and drug users › Places where used to use or purchase Negative feeling states particularly anger but also: › Boredom › Loneliness › Fear › Anxiety
Positive feeling states Physical pain Use of mood-altering prescription drugs Suddenly having a lot of cash Complacency Insomnia Sexual functioning
Psychotherapy Behavior Therapy Structure Recovery Foundation Program Changing patterns Safety Plan Pharmacological Acute Maintenance
31 yo Nicki-a recovering methamphetamine addict- just got her first paycheck. She cashed her check and cruised thru the neighborhood where she used to score dope. Rock music blared from her speakers. Soon she was thinking, "I worked hard all week. I deserve a little fun.”
In an inpatient setting the patient schedule serves this purpose On an outpatient basis or upon discharge from inpatient a recovery plan or contract is appropriate Remember that most addicts have little or no recent experience living a drug free lifestyle
Carter is 24 yo and just getting out of treatment for alcohol and drug addiction His early A/D history included…. Started drinking on Friday nights with friends in high school Turned-on to cocaine and marijuana by friends on weekends Started to buy drugs to sell from a distributor on Wed nights
MY PERSONAL SAFETY PLAN Remember that craving go away I can write in my journal I can call my sponsor (299-289-5555) I can call my lover (299-426-1776) I can read from my favorite recovery book I can read affirmations
TH: “On the back of the index card, come up with a saying or a prayer that gives you strength.” CT: “ I have always liked ‘Lord help me to be the best possible person I can be today’.”
Naltrexone (Revia, Vivitrol) Pure antagonist Poor compliance Less than 10% for street addicts Better compliance Healthcare professionals Parole/Probation New suspension with q30d administration should dramatically increase compliance and reliability of drug
Subutex-Buprenorphine. sublingual (SL) 2mg and 8mg tablets Suboxone-Buprenorphine/Naloxone SL tablets Buprenorphine 25-50 x’s more potent than morphine Partial agonist Increasing dose does not increase effect like a full agonist
Very high affinity for mu opioid receptor Mu receptor will choose buprenorphine over other opioids Buprenorphine will displace other opioids Slow dissolution from mu receptor Half-life on receptor is 34-36 hrs Heroin on and off receptor in millisecond At Buprenorphine dose of 16mg almost no binding to other opioids
If taken under the tongue you get predominant buprenorphine effect If dissolved and injected get predominant naloxone effect (precipitates withdrawal)
Buprenorphine equally effective as 60 mg of Methadone per day If patient needs 80-100 or more mgs of Methadone to be comfortable, Buprenorphine probably will not work With client dependent on short-acting opioids Instruct client to abstain for 12-24 hours Need to be in mild withdrawal before first dose
Disulfiram, 1951 Acamprosate, 2004 Oral naltrexone, 1994 Injectable extended-release naltrexone, 2006 NONE OF THESE ARE ADDICTIVE
Dopamine Increased Release Dopamine Increased Release GABA Increased Sensitivity to GABA GABA Increased Sensitivity to GABA Opioid Peptides Increased Endogenous Opioid Activity Opioid Peptides Increased Endogenous Opioid Activity Glutamate Decreased Activity Glutamate Decreased Activity De Witte P. Addict Behav 2004;29:1325; Gianoulakis C. Curr Top Med Chem 2004;4:39-50; Nestler EJ. Nat Neurosci 2005;8:1445-1449; Tupala E, Tiihonen J. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2004;28:1221-1247.
Glutamate System Adaptation # and/or function of NMDA receptors on neurons Balances acute alcohol effect Effect: tolerance, dependence Adaptation # and/or function of NMDA receptors on neurons Balances acute alcohol effect Effect: tolerance, dependence Chronic Alcohol Use Chronic Alcohol Use Withdrawal Increased glutamatergic activity Effect:- Acute: dysphoria, hallucinations - Post-acute: sleep/mood disturbances Withdrawal Increased glutamatergic activity Effect:- Acute: dysphoria, hallucinations - Post-acute: sleep/mood disturbances Removal of Alcohol Removal of Alcohol Alcohol-Free CNS Equilibrium Alcohol-Free CNS Equilibrium Acute Alcohol Effect Inhibits NMDA receptors Effect: anxiety, sedation Acute Alcohol Effect Inhibits NMDA receptors Effect: anxiety, sedation Administration of Alcohol Administration of Alcohol Littleton. Alcohol Health Res World 1998;22:13.
N = 605 Fuller RK, et al. JAMA 1986;256:1449-1455. N = 605 Fuller RK, et al. JAMA 1986;256:1449-1455.
* N = 605 * p <.05 Fuller RK, et al. JAMA 1986;256:1449-1455. N = 605 * p <.05 Fuller RK, et al. JAMA 1986;256:1449-1455.
Glutamate a a Acamprosate NMDA Receptor NMDA Receptor Reduction in glutamate release Reduction in postsynaptic effects mGluR5 receptor a a a a a a a a a a NMDA = N-methyl-D-aspartate mGluR5 = metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor NMDA = N-methyl-D-aspartate mGluR5 = metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor
N = 272 Sass H, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996;53:673-680. N = 272 Sass H, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996;53:673-680.
Location Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC) Impact of Drugs of Abuse Drug as reinforcer far exceeds that of natural reinforcers OFC hypoactive during AAS Exposure to drug or other “cues” during withdrawal precipitates craving and compulsive drug use
Hypothalamus Head ganglion of ANS & locus of drive Amygdala Reticular formation Brainstem regulation of arousal Frontal cortex
Modulates instinctive behavior and internal drives Processes face and voice information for appraisal of external environment Therefore, integrates external and internal environment Early developmental trauma has negative impact on OFC
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PARASYMPATHETIC SYMPATHETIC DISSOCIATION HYPERAROUSAL (FREEZE) (FIGHT/FIGHT)
Increase value of non-drug reinforcers Positive Connection to Others Therapeutic Relationship How we communicate “Mirror” neurons Family and couples therapy 12 step meetings Connection to Higher Power of Your Choice Mindfulness Meditation
Location Amygdala Hippocampus Impact of Drugs of Abuse People, Places and Things (“cues” or “triggers”) create an intense desire to use (“craving”)
Impact of Drugs of Abuse (cont.) These cues automatically trigger habit learning Release of DA Declarative learning links emotional states to use (“Hungry, Angry, Lonely and Tired”)
Behavioral Extinguish learned positive association with drug or drug “cues” Promote reinforcement of positive behaviors
Recovery in neuropsychological functioning › Most of treatment is during time of greatest dysfunction › Recovery is; Time-dependent Due to sustained abstinence Experience- dependent Active rehabilitation or repetitive behavior
Control Strengthen Prefrontal Cortical Control Cognitive Therapy Education Exercises Puzzles Computer Games Crossword Puzzles Vertical Integration
PFC plastic especially between 0-5 and 10-20 years of age Developmental delays occur secondary to early life trauma and early onset alcohol/drug abuse. Treatment Positive role models (Sponsor) Surrogate family (Home Group) “Growing Up In AA”
Coordinate the many brain activities needed to utilize: Executive Functions Set goals Make plans to attain those goals Organize steps to carry out the plans Ensure that desired outcomes are achieved Conscience Pursue Reward Within the Law
Why give an alcoholic or addict a 60 minute didactic or video? A new format 15-20 minute simple didactic How to participate in treatment 10 minute questionnaire 30 minute discussion group
I THINK……….. I FEEL………….. I LEARNED…… MY FUTURE BEHAVIOR WILL CHANGE…
BE KIND, CONSIDERATE, FORGIVING AND COMPASSIONATE AT ALL TIMES, PLACES AND UNDER ALL CONDITIONS WITH EVERYONE, AS WELL AS, YOURSELF
http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/111/1 0/1444 http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/111/1 0/1444 Nestler, Eric. “The Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction”. Science & Practice Perspectives. December 2005, pgs 4-12. http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram /3023_pnt http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram /3023_pnt Cloninger, Robert. Feeling Good: The Science of Well-Being. Oxford University Press, New York, 2004.
Panksepp, Jaak. Affective Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, New York,1998, pg 255. Schore, Allan. Affect Regulation & the Repair of the Self. WW Norton, New York, 2003, pg 29-31. Scaer, Robert. The Trauma Spectrum. WW Norton, New York, 2005, pgs 62-64.
http://www.msu.edu/~brains/humanatla s/search.html http://www.msu.edu/~brains/humanatla s/search.html Nuckols, Cardwell C. THE SCIENCE OF RECOVERY: “Connecting to Others and a Higher Power of Your Choice”. Counselor Magazine. Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb., 2006. Nuckols, Cardwell C. THE SCIENCE OF RECOVERY: "Incorporating Neuroscience into Your Practice”. Counselor Magazine. December 2005, Vol. 6, no.,6, pgs 24-31.
Gazzaniga, Michael (Editor). The Cognitive Neurosciences III. The MIT Press, London2004. Rossi, Ernest. The Psychobiology of Gene Expression. WW Norton, New York,2002. Blumenfeld, Hal. Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA., 2002. McGlynn EA, et al. “The Quality of Healthcare Delivered to Adults in America”. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348:2635-2645.