2Essential QuestionsWhat does the Red Scare teach us about our judicial system in time of fear?How do immigrants challenge our commitment to our judicial system?How open are we as a nation to diverse ideas?
3The Red Scare: 1918-1920 Response to the creation of Soviet Union Fear of Communism and anarchy spreading in USSeries of terrorists bombs sent throughout the country
4The Fears: Communism & Anarchy Communism: political ideology promoting a violent revolution in order to redistribute property and create collective ownership of property, leading to the elimination of a society’s social class system in a way that would benefit the working classes.Anarchy: political ideology promoting a society without government. Rather than submission to law, or to any authority, people would enter into free agreements between the various groups in order to achieve true economic and political freedom.
5What’s so scary about communism & anarchy? Outline your ideas:1)2)3)
13The Crime: Armed Robbery, Murder & Association with Radicals? At 3:00 P.M. on April 15,1920, a paymaster and his guard were carrying a factory payroll of $15,776 through the main street of South Braintree, Massachusetts. Both were shot and left for dead.On the evening of May 5, 1920, two Italians, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, fell into a police trap that had been set for a suspect in the Braintree crime. Sacco & Vanzetti were carrying guns at the time of their arrest and when questioned by the authorities they lied. As a result they were held and eventually indicted for the South Braintree crimes.Both associated with anarchists involved in labor strikes, political agitation, and antiwar propaganda.
15Why does Massachusetts hesitate. What does international labor protest Why does Massachusetts hesitate? What does international labor protest? About Sacco & Vanzetti...." Broadside, January 25, 1925 (Boston, 1925), Massachusetts Historical Society.
17The TrialFred H. Moore, the well-known socialist lawyer politicizes the case using mass media. Effective but Expensive!Found Guilty of Robbery & Murder!Traditional Boston lawyer takes over appeals.Protests throughout America and around the world by Italian government, liberals, radical anarchists, socialists, and communists in protesting the verdict against Sacco and Vanzetti.
18In the words of Sacco & Vanzetti Thanks to you from the bottom of my heart for your confidence in my innocence; I am so. I did not spittel a drop of blood, or steal a cent in all my life. Bartolomeo Vanzetti from the Charlestown State Prison, July 22, 1921. Charlestown PrisonAugust 4, 1927.MY DEAR FRIENDS AND COMRADES:From the death cell we are just inform from the defense committee that the governor Fuller he has decided to kill us Aug. the 10th. We are not surprised for this news because we know the capitalist class hard without any mercy the good soldiers of the rivolution.Nicola Sacco from the Charlestown State Prison
19The FuneralExecuted on August 10, 1927, after all recourse in the Massachusetts courts had failed.Public agitation around the world and influential behind-the-scenes interventions, finally persuaded the governor of Massachusetts, Alvan T. Fuller, to consider the question of executive clemency for the two men.An advisory committee, the "Lowell Committee," concluded that the trial and judicial process had been just "on the whole" and that clemency was not warranted.
20Essential QuestionsWhat does the Red Scare teach us about our judicial system in time of fear?How do immigrants challenge our commitment to our judicial system?How open are we as a nation to diverse ideas?