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1450-1600.  Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), painter/scientist.  Fall of Constantinople (1453)  Gutenberg Bible printed (1456) printing press.  Nicolas.

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Presentation on theme: "1450-1600.  Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), painter/scientist.  Fall of Constantinople (1453)  Gutenberg Bible printed (1456) printing press.  Nicolas."— Presentation transcript:

1 1450-1600

2  Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), painter/scientist.  Fall of Constantinople (1453)  Gutenberg Bible printed (1456) printing press.  Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543), Polish astronomer.  Michelangelo (1475-1564) painter, sculptor  Martin Luther (1483-1546) religious reformer.

3  Columbus discovers the New World (1492)  First music book printed in Italy (1501)  Council of Trent begins (1545)  Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England (1558)  William Shakespeare (1564-1616)  Musica Transalpina published (1588)

4  The Renaissance was an era of exploration, scientific inquiry, artistic awakening, and secularization.  Artists and writers found inspiration in the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome.  Renaissance musicians were employed in churches, cities, and courts; or in the trades of instrument building and music printing.

5  The name is misleading because it suggests a sudden rebirth of learning and art after a “stagnate” Middle Ages. However it is a continuation.  It marks the passing of European society from a predominately religious orientation to a more secular one, and from an age of unquestioning faith and mysticism to one of reason and scientific inquiry.

6  The focus on human fulfillment rather than the hereafter; a new way of thinking centered on human issues and the individual.  People gained confidence in their ability to solve their own problems rather than rely exclusively on tradition or religion.

7 This “awakening” was called Humanism and was inspired by ancient cultures of Greece and Rome. Renaissance society embraced the ideas of ancient writers and philosophers, such as Plato and Virgil.

8  The revival of ancient writings mentioned earlier along with the introduction of printing (1455- Gutenberg), had its counterpart in architecture, painting and sculpture.  Lavish palaces and spacious villas were built according to harmonious proportions of the classical style.

9  The development of the compass made possible the voyages of discovery that opened up new worlds and demolished old superstitions.  Explorers were in search of a new trade route to the riches of China and the Indies, instead they stumbled upon North and South America.

10  Nature entered painting as did a preoccupation with the laws of perspective and composition.  Medieval painting had presented life through symbolism; the Renaissance preferred realism.

11  Were supported by the chief institutions of their society-church, city, and state, as well as royal and aristocratic courts.  They found employment as choirmasters, singers, organists, instrumentalists, copyists, composers, teachers, instrument builders, and music printers.

12  Vocal forms of Renaissance music were marked by smoothly gliding melodies conceived especially for the voice.  The 16 th century has become known as the golden age of a cappella style.  Polyphony in this genre was based on the principle of imitation.  Most church music was written for a cappella performance. Why?

13  Secular music, however, was divided between purely vocal works and those in which the singers were supported by instruments.  The Renaissance also saw a growth of solo instrumental music, especially for the lute and keyboard.  Harmony came into play during the Renaissance as composers leaned toward fuller chords.

14  They turned away from the open fifths and octaves to more “pleasing” thirds and sixths.  Word Painting- (making music reflect the meaning of the words)- was definitely favored in secular music.  Dissonance was used to describe or highlight the word “death”, while an ascending line was used to portray “heaven” or the stars.

15  Polyphonic writing offered the composer many possibilities such as the use of a cantus firmus.  The preeminent composers of the early Renaissance were from northern Europe, present day Belgium and northern France.  In later Renaissance we will see the emergence of Italian composers in both the sacred and secular realms of music.

16  Mass sung in Latin, not vernacular (language of the country)  Composers focused their polyphonic mass settings on the Mass Ordinary:  Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei  Kyrie- is a prayer for mercy. Follows an A- B-A form that consists on 9 invocations

17  Gloria- (Glory be to God on high), a joyful hymn of praise.  Credo- (I believe in one God, the Father Almighty), this is the confession of faith and the longest of the Mass texts.  Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy), a song of praise which concludes with the “Hosanna in the highest”

18  Agnus Dei (Lamb of God, Who takes away the sins of the world), sung 3 times.  Twice it concludes with “miserere nobis” (have mercy on us) and on the 3 rd time with the prayer “dona nobis pacem” (grant us peace).  All 5 movements are part of the Ordinary or fixed portion.  Movements for special occasions (Proper) were added in between the Ordinary-see p.102

19  Early polyphonic settings of the Mass were based on fragments of Gregorian chant (cantus firmus)  It provided composers with a fixed element that they could embellish, using all the resources of their artistry, and when set in all the movements, it helped unify the Mass. Requiem: Mass for the Dead  Sung at funerals and memorial services  Opening verse: "Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine" (Grant them eternal rest, O Lord)

20  Part of the Burgundian School (Franco- Flemish).  Music less complex than that of Ars nova  Many of his works are built on a cantus firmus  L'homme armé Mass, Kyrie  Popular secular tune is the cantus firmus (found in the tenor voice)  First part of the Mass Ordinary  Non-imitative polyphonic texture (four voices)  Ternary form

21 Renaissance motet had a single Latin text Majority of motets had a Marian (Virgin Mary) theme Typically motets were written for 3, 4, or more voices Sometimes motets were based on a cantus firmus  Josquin des Prez of Northern France was considered one of the greatest Renaissance motet composers.

22 Franco-Flemish composer, made career in Italy  Milan: Court of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza  Ferrara: Court of Ercole d'Este  Rome: papal choir  Humanism evident in his music (emotion over intellect).  Composed sacred and secular music.

23  Protestant revolt led by Martin Luther (1483–1546): Reformation Catholic response: Counter-Reformation (1530s– 1590s)  Council of Trent attendees sought to reform Catholic Church

24  Concerns of Council of Trent  Corruption of chant by embellishment  Use of certain instruments in religious services  Incorporation of popular music in Masses  Secularism of music  Irreverent attitude of church musicians  Committee recommended a pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the sacred texts

25  Italian composer, organist, choirmaster.  Director of the Sistine Chapel Choir (Pope Julius III).  Wrote mostly sacred music.  Pope Marcellus Mass met the new strict demands of the Council of Trent.  Probably performed a cappella  Written for 6 voice parts:  Soprano (sung by boys or male falsettos)  Alto (sung by male altos or countertenors)  Tenor I  Tenor II  Bass I  Bass II

26 Secular Music In the Renaissance Era

27 Fact:  The Renaissance saw a rise in amateur music-making and in secular music (French chansons and the Italian and English madrigals).  Instrumental dance music was played by professional and amateur musicians, who often added embellishments. 

28 Fact:  The madrigal originated in Italy as a form of aristocratic entertainment.  Monteverdi was a master of the Italian madrigal and of expressive devices such as word painting.  The English madrigal was often simpler and lighter in style than its Italian counterpart.

29 Music in Court and City Life  Professional musicians entertained in courts and at civic functions.  Merchant class amateurs played and sang at home.  Most popular instruments: lute, keyboard instruments.  A well-bred young woman was expected to have studied music.  Some women achieved great fame as professional singers.

30 Music in Court and City Life  Main Music genres: chanson and madrigal  Major literary influences:  Francesco Petrarch (1304–1373) “Father of Humanism”  Pierre de Ronsard (1524–1585) “Prince of Poets”

31 The Chanson  Favored vocal genre in Burgundy and France in the 15th century.  Usually for 3 or 4 voices.  Set to courtly love verses.  Freer poetic structures (without set repetition patterns).  Premier composers: Guillaume Du Fay, and Josquin des Prez.

32 Josquin Des Prez and the Chanson  Written during the last year of the composer's life.  Four-voice texture.  Language of courtly love.  Pain and suffering of leaving one's beloved.  Uses an archaic sounding church mode (E)  Varied texture: homorhythm, imitation.  Expressive text setting, using word painting.

33 Instrumental Dance Music  16th century was a period of growth for instrumental music.  Published music was readily available.  Publishing centers: Venice, Paris, Antwerp.  Instrumentation was unspecified.  The occasion dictated the ensemble: (indoor or outdoor).

34 Popular Dance Types  Pavane: stately court dance.  Saltarello: quicker Italian jumping dance.  Galliard: more vigorous French version of saltarello.  Allemande: German dance in moderate duple time.  Ronde: less courtly round dance, danced in a circle outdoors.

35 The Italian Madrigal  Chief form of Renaissance secular music.  Song form flourished at the Italian courts.  Text: short poem of lyric or reflective nature.  Includes "loaded" words: weeping, sighing, trembling, dying, etc.

36 The Italian Madrigal  Music: sets text expressively.  Instruments double or substitute for the voices.  Three phases of the madrigal:  First phase (c. 1525–1550)  Entertaining for the performers (often amateurs).

37 The Italian Madrigal  Second phase (c. 1550–1580):  Art form in which music and words were clearly linked.  Third phase (c. 1580–1620):  Exhibited chromatic harmony.  Dramatic declamation and vocal virtuosity.  Vividly described emotion.  Extended beyond the Renaissance into the Baroque Era.

38 The English Madrigal  Composers in England further developed the Italian madrigal.  English madrigalists included:  Thomas Morley, Thomas Weelkes, John Farmer.

39 The English Madrigal  First collection of Italian madrigals published in England entitled.  Musica transalpina (Music from beyond the Alps) 1588.  English madrigals were often simpler and lighter in style than Italian.  New English madrigals were soon cultivated, some with refrain syllables ("fa la la").

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