2Key Points in HistoryLeonardo da Vinci ( ), painter/scientist.Fall of Constantinople (1453)Gutenberg Bible printed (1456) printing press.Nicolas Copernicus ( ), Polish astronomer.Michelangelo ( ) painter, sculptorMartin Luther ( ) religious reformer.
3Key Points in History Columbus discovers the New World (1492) First music book printed in Italy (1501)Council of Trent begins (1545)Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England (1558)William Shakespeare ( )Musica Transalpina published (1588)
4The Renaissance Spirit The Renaissance was an era of exploration, scientific inquiry, artistic awakening, and secularization.Artists and writers found inspiration in the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome.Renaissance musicians were employed in churches, cities, and courts; or in the trades of instrument building and music printing.
5The Renaissance Spirit The name is misleading because it suggests a sudden rebirth of learning and art after a “stagnate” Middle Ages. However it is a continuation.It marks the passing of European society from a predominately religious orientation to a more secular one, and from an age of unquestioning faith and mysticism to one of reason and scientific inquiry.
6The Renaissance Spirit The focus on human fulfillment rather than the hereafter; a new way of thinking centered on human issues and the individual.People gained confidence in their ability to solve their own problems rather than rely exclusively on tradition or religion.
7The Renaissance Spirit This “awakening” was called Humanism and was inspired by ancient cultures of Greece and Rome.Renaissance society embraced the ideas of ancient writers and philosophers, such as Plato and Virgil.
8The Arts in the Renaissance The revival of ancient writings mentioned earlier along with the introduction of printing (1455- Gutenberg), had its counterpart in architecture, painting and sculpture.Lavish palaces and spacious villas were built according to harmonious proportions of the classical style.
9The Arts in the Renaissance The development of the compass made possible the voyages of discovery that opened up new worlds and demolished old superstitions.Explorers were in search of a new trade route to the riches of China and the Indies, instead they stumbled upon North and South America.
10The Arts in the Renaissance Nature entered painting as did a preoccupation with the laws of perspective and composition.Medieval painting had presented life through symbolism; the Renaissance preferred realism.
11Musicians in Renaissance Society Were supported by the chief institutions of their society-church, city, and state, as well as royal and aristocratic courts.They found employment as choirmasters, singers, organists, instrumentalists, copyists, composers, teachers, instrument builders, and music printers.
12The Renaissance Musical Style Vocal forms of Renaissance music were marked by smoothly gliding melodies conceived especially for the voice.The 16th century has become known as the golden age of a cappella style.Polyphony in this genre was based on the principle of imitation.Most church music was written for a cappella performance. Why?
13The Renaissance Musical Style Secular music, however, was divided between purely vocal works and those in which the singers were supported by instruments.The Renaissance also saw a growth of solo instrumental music, especially for the lute and keyboard.Harmony came into play during the Renaissance as composers leaned toward fuller chords.
14The Renaissance Musical Style They turned away from the open fifths and octaves to more “pleasing” thirds and sixths.Word Painting- (making music reflect the meaning of the words)- was definitely favored in secular music.Dissonance was used to describe or highlight the word “death”, while an ascending line was used to portray “heaven” or the stars.
15The Renaissance Musical Style Polyphonic writing offered the composer many possibilities such as the use of a cantus firmus.The preeminent composers of the early Renaissance were from northern Europe, present day Belgium and northern France.In later Renaissance we will see the emergence of Italian composers in both the sacred and secular realms of music.
16The Early Renaissance Mass Mass sung in Latin, not vernacular (language of the country)Composers focused their polyphonic mass settings on the Mass Ordinary:Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiKyrie- is a prayer for mercy. Follows an A-B-A form that consists on 9 invocations
17The Early Renaissance Mass Gloria- (Glory be to God on high), a joyful hymn of praise.Credo- (I believe in one God, the Father Almighty), this is the confession of faith and the longest of the Mass texts.Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy), a song of praise which concludes with the “Hosanna in the highest”
18The Early Renaissance Mass Agnus Dei (Lamb of God, Who takes away the sins of the world), sung 3 times.Twice it concludes with “miserere nobis” (have mercy on us) and on the 3rd time with the prayer “dona nobis pacem” (grant us peace).All 5 movements are part of the Ordinary or fixed portion.Movements for special occasions (Proper) were added in between the Ordinary-see p.102
19The Early Renaissance Mass Early polyphonic settings of the Mass were based on fragments of Gregorian chant (cantus firmus)It provided composers with a fixed element that they could embellish, using all the resources of their artistry, and when set in all the movements, it helped unify the Mass.Requiem: Mass for the DeadSung at funerals and memorial servicesOpening verse: "Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine" (Grant them eternal rest, O Lord)
20Guillaumme Du Fay (c )Part of the Burgundian School (Franco-Flemish).Music less complex than that of Ars novaMany of his works are built on a cantus firmusL'homme armé Mass, KyriePopular secular tune is the cantus firmus (found in the tenor voice)First part of the Mass OrdinaryNon-imitative polyphonic texture (four voices)Ternary form
21The Motet Renaissance motet had a single Latin text Majority of motets had a Marian (Virgin Mary) themeTypically motets were written for 3, 4, or more voicesSometimes motets were based on a cantus firmusJosquin des Prez of Northern France was considered one of the greatest Renaissance motet composers.
22Josquin des Prez (c )Franco-Flemish composer, made career in ItalyMilan: Court of Cardinal Ascanio SforzaFerrara: Court of Ercole d'EsteRome: papal choirHumanism evident in his music (emotion over intellect).Composed sacred and secular music.
23The Late Renaissance Mass Protestant revolt led by Martin Luther (1483–1546): ReformationCatholic response: Counter-Reformation (1530s– 1590s)Council of Trent attendees sought to reform Catholic Church
24The Late Renaissance Mass Concerns of Council of TrentCorruption of chant by embellishmentUse of certain instruments in religious servicesIncorporation of popular music in MassesSecularism of musicIrreverent attitude of church musiciansCommittee recommended a pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the sacred texts
25Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525-1594) Italian composer, organist, choirmaster.Director of the Sistine Chapel Choir (Pope Julius III).Wrote mostly sacred music.Pope Marcellus Mass met the new strict demands of the Council of Trent.Probably performed a cappellaWritten for 6 voice parts:Soprano (sung by boys or male falsettos)Alto (sung by male altos or countertenors)Tenor ITenor IIBass IBass II
27Fact:The Renaissance saw a rise in amateur music-making and in secular music (French chansons and the Italian and English madrigals).Instrumental dance music was played by professional and amateur musicians, who often added embellishments.
28Fact:The madrigal originated in Italy as a form of aristocratic entertainment.Monteverdi was a master of the Italian madrigal and of expressive devices such as word painting.The English madrigal was often simpler and lighter in style than its Italian counterpart.
29Music in Court and City Life Professional musicians entertained in courts and at civic functions.Merchant class amateurs played and sang at home.Most popular instruments: lute, keyboard instruments.A well-bred young woman was expected to have studied music.Some women achieved great fame as professional singers.
30Music in Court and City Life Main Music genres: chanson and madrigalMajor literary influences:Francesco Petrarch (1304–1373) “Father of Humanism”Pierre de Ronsard (1524–1585) “Prince of Poets”
31The ChansonFavored vocal genre in Burgundy and France in the 15th century.Usually for 3 or 4 voices.Set to courtly love verses.Freer poetic structures (without set repetition patterns).Premier composers: Guillaume Du Fay, and Josquin des Prez.
32Josquin Des Prez and the Chanson Written during the last year of the composer's life.Four-voice texture.Language of courtly love.Pain and suffering of leaving one's beloved.Uses an archaic sounding church mode (E)Varied texture: homorhythm, imitation.Expressive text setting, using word painting.
33Instrumental Dance Music 16th century was a period of growth for instrumental music.Published music was readily available.Publishing centers: Venice, Paris, Antwerp.Instrumentation was unspecified.The occasion dictated the ensemble: (indoor or outdoor).
34Popular Dance Types Pavane: stately court dance. Saltarello: quicker Italian jumping dance.Galliard: more vigorous French version of saltarello.Allemande: German dance in moderate duple time.Ronde: less courtly round dance, danced in a circle outdoors.
35The Italian Madrigal Chief form of Renaissance secular music. Song form flourished at the Italian courts.Text: short poem of lyric or reflective nature.Includes "loaded" words: weeping, sighing, trembling, dying, etc.
36The Italian Madrigal Music: sets text expressively. Instruments double or substitute for the voices.Three phases of the madrigal:First phase (c. 1525–1550)Entertaining for the performers (often amateurs).
37The Italian Madrigal Second phase (c. 1550–1580): Art form in which music and words were clearly linked.Third phase (c. 1580–1620):Exhibited chromatic harmony.Dramatic declamation and vocal virtuosity.Vividly described emotion.Extended beyond the Renaissance into the Baroque Era.
38The English MadrigalComposers in England further developed the Italian madrigal.English madrigalists included:Thomas Morley, Thomas Weelkes, John Farmer.
39The English MadrigalFirst collection of Italian madrigals published in England entitled.Musica transalpina (Music from beyond the Alps) 1588.English madrigals were often simpler and lighter in style than Italian.New English madrigals were soon cultivated, some with refrain syllables ("fa la la").