The Digital Native 99% of schools have the internet. 1 90% or more of students over the age of 10 use computers regularly for school work. 2 1 & 2 U.S. Department of Eduction. (2002, 2003)
Debate "Students are not just using technology differently today, but are appraoching their life and their daily activities differently because of technology" -Presensky (2010) Bayne & Ross (2007), Bennett e Al., (2008) e Selwyn (2009) Call for a more careful and critical look at digital natives based on facts instead of anecdotal evidence.
The online classroom AdvantagesDisadvantages Easy access; more resources Low-cost Egaltarian culture = Everyone has a voice Personalized Colaborative Logs Time fleibility Community at a distance Anxiety minimalized Lessens the gap in social classes. Sense of isolation Lack of supportl, technical and administrative High atrition levels Communication problems Non-academic tasks placed on teacher Lack of education Lack of orientation Lack of student motivation New roles for everyone Academic integrity. Brown, et al (2004); Brown & Green (2003); Buchanan (2011); Buck (2001); Davis et al (2004); Hall & Knox (2009); Husmann & Miller (2003); Lee (2008); Robb (2004); Satar & Özdener (2008); Telles & Maroti (2008); Weiger (1998); Yang & Cornelious (2005); Yoshida (2011)
Tecnology Today GUI software: Macromedia Dreamweaver® Flash® Director® Authorware® Microsoft. NET® Visual Basic® Audobe GoLive® Photoshop® Illustrator® Movie Maker® iMovie® AviDeMux® Audacity® MSN Live® ooVoo® Programming languages: HTML JAVA XML Perl PHP MySQL Multimedia Hosting: Vocaroo® Vimeo® Teacher Tube® Dropbox® Multimedia Players: VLC® Windows Media Player® Quicktime® Real Player® Course Managers: Moodle Web CT Blackboard Schoology Web Browsers: Mozilla Firefox® Safari® Internet Explorer (IE) ® Chrome® Web tools, applications and software: IM Chat Online gamming 3D webspaces Blog Skype Wiki Forums
Online graduation prerequisites Idaho, Florida, Michigan and Alabama require taking online classes for graduation and 10 more states plan to implement similar requirements in the near future.
Teacher preparation The majority of teacher preparation programs offer a limited quantity of technology courses, often times limited to one course or a maximum of a series of workshops. (Grant, 2012; Kay, 2006)
Some institutions offer online pedagogy courses, but they often consist of platform training only. (Moodle, Blackboard, Web CT, etc.) lRea online pedagogy is completely ignored. (GRANT, 2012).
References Anderson T. (2004). Teaching in an Online Learning Context. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning, Athabasca University, 271-294. Alley, L.R., & Jansak, K.E. (2001). The ten keys to quality assurance and assessment in online learning, Journal of Interactive Instruction Development, 13(3). 3-18. Ascough, R.S. (2002). Designing for online distance education: Putting pedagogy before technology. Teaching theology and Religion, 5 (1), 17-29. Beckett, G. & Slater, T. (2005). The project framework: a tool for language, content, and skills integration. ELT Journal. 59(2), 108-116. Bennett, S., Maton, K. & Kervin, L. (2008). The ‘digital natives’ debate: a critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 10, 775–786. Bayne, S., & Ross, J. (2007). The 'digital native' and 'digital immigrant': a dangerous opposition. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Blaurock, C.A. (2011). Skype™: a portal into the 21 st century in a secondary Spanish classroom. Kent State University College Press. Kent State University, Kent, USA. Brown, S.A., Fuller, R.M. & Vician, C. (2004). Who’s afraid of the virtual world: anxiety and computer-mediated communication. Journal of the AIS 5 (2). 81-105
Referencias (cont.) Brown, A., & Green T. (Jan/Feb 2003). Showing up to class in pajamas (or less!): The fantasies and realities of on-line professional development. Clearing House, 76 (3), 148-151. Buchanan, R. (2011). Paradox, promise and public pedagogy: Implications of the federal government's Digital Education Revolution. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2), Article 6. Retrieved from: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1524&context=ajte Buck, J. (2001). Assuring quality in distance education. Higher Education in Europe, 26 (4), 599-602. Caplan, D. (2005). The development of online courses. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and practice of online learning. 175–194. Creative Commons, Athabasca University. Collentine, K. (2011). Learner autonomy in a task-based 3D world and production. Language Learning & Technology, 15(3), 50-67. Davis, A., Little, P., & Stewart, B. (2004). Developing an infrastructure for online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi, (Eds.), Theory and practice of online learning (Chapter 4). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press. Doughty, C. J., & Long, M. H. (2003). Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 7(3), 50-80. Grant, A. (2012). Distinguishing Online and Face-to-Face Learning: Acquisition, Learning, and Online Pedagogy. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Indiana, USA Henderson, M., Huang, H., Grant, S & Henderson, L. (2012). The impact of Chinese language lessons in a virtual world on university students’ self-efficacy beliefs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2012, 28(Special issue, 3), 400-419.
Referencias (cont.) Hall, D. & Knox, J. (2009) Language teacher education by distance. In: Burns, A. & Richards, J.C. The Cambridge Guide to Second Language Teacher Education. Cambridge, England.218-229 Hubbard, P., & Levy, M. (2005). The scope of CALL education. In: Hubbard, P., & Levy, M. (ed.) Teacher Education in CALL. 3-20. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Ca, 2006. Hughes, J. A. (2004). Supporting the online learner. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and practice of online learning. 369-370. Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Kay, R. (2006). Evaluating strategies used to incorporate technology into preservice education: a review of the literature. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(4), 383-408. Keramidas, C. G., Ludlow, B. L., Collins, B. C., & Baird, C. M. (2007). Saving your sanity when teaching in an online environment: Lessons learned. Rural Special Education Quarterly (26)1. 28-39 Lee, L. (2008). Focus-on-form through collaborative Scaffolding in expert-to-novice online interaction. Language Learning & Technology, 12(3), 53-72) Levy, S. (2003). Six factors to consider when planning online distance learning programs in higher education. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 6(1). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring61/levy61.htm. Littlejohn, A., Falconer, I., & Mcgill, L. (2008). Characterising effective eLearning resources. Computers & Education, 50, 757-771. Lu, M., Todd A. M., & Miller, M. T. (2011). Creating a Supportive Culture for Online Teaching: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 14(3). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall143/lu_todd_miller143.html http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall143/lu_todd_miller143.html
Referencias (cont.) Prensky, M. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning.Thousands Oaks, CA: Corwin. Robb, T. (2004). Moodle: A virtual learning environment for the rest of us. TESL-EJ, 8(2), 1-8. Rodgers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovation (4 th ed.). New York: The Free Press. Satar, H. M., & Özdener, N. (2008). The effects of synchronous CMC on speaking proficiency and anxiety: Text versus voice chat. The Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 595-613. Selwyn, N. (2009). The digital native: myth and reality. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 61(4), 364–379. Szendeffy, J. (2005). A practical guide to using computers in language teaching. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Shulby, C. (2012). Merk mal: uma Ferramenta online automatizada para o desenvolvimento da competência linguistico-gramatical em língua estrangeira (L.E.). In: Gama, A. P. F., & Souza, F. M. d. (Eds.) Mídia, linguagem e ensino: diálogos transdisciplinares. 237-258. São Carlos, Brazil: Pedro e João Editores. Telles, J.A., & Maroti, F.A. (2008). Teletandem: Crenças e respostas dos alunos. In PINHO, S.Z. e Sagligetti, J.R.O.C. Núcleos de Ensino da UNESP: Artigos dos projetos realizados em 2006. Cultura Acadêmica Editora, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. ISBN: 978-85-98605-65-4
Referencias (cont.) U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Eduction Statistics. (2002). Internet access in U.S. Public schools and classrooms: 1994-2002. Retrieved May, 25, 2012, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2004011 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Eduction Statistics. (2003). Student use of computers, by level of enrollment, age, and student and school characteristics: 1993, 1997, and 2003. Retrieved May, 25, 2012, from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_019.asp Wang, Y., Chen, N., & Levy, M. (2010). The design and implementation of a holistic training model for language teacher education in a cyber face-to-face learning environment. Computers & Education, 55, 777-788. Weiger, P. R. (1998). What a tangle (world wide) web we weave. Community College Week, 10 (22), 11-13. Yang, Y., & Cornelious, L. F. (2005). Preparing instructors for quality online instruction. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8 (1). Retrieved from: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring81/yang81.htm http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring81/yang81.htm Yoshida, T. (2011). Moodle as a meditational space: japanese EFL Teachers’ emerging conceptions of curriculum. In: Johnson, K.E. & Golombek, P.R. Reserach on Second Language Teacher Education: a Sociocultural Perspective on Professional Development. Routledge, New York, USA. Zhao, Y., Beyers, J., Mishra, P., Topper, A., Chen, H., Enfield, M., Ferdig, R., Frank, K., Pugh, K. & Hueysantan, S. (2001). What do they know? A comprehensive portrait of exemplary technology-using teachers. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 17(2), 175-189.