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Chapter 12.  The nation was growing in geographical extent and in size and diversity of the population. The economy was becoming more diverse and more.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12.  The nation was growing in geographical extent and in size and diversity of the population. The economy was becoming more diverse and more."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12

2  The nation was growing in geographical extent and in size and diversity of the population. The economy was becoming more diverse and more multi- dimensioned.  Romanticism was in contrast to classic Protestant assumptions of original sin, which humans needed to overcome through a disciplined virtuous life. Antebellum Culture and Reform

3 The Romantic Impulse  American intellectuals were committing themselves to the liberation of the human spirit  American Painters sought to capture the undiluted power of nature, they painted some of the nation's wildest and most spectacular areas, and tried to evoke the Sublime (a feeling of awe and wonderment)

4 The Romantic Impulse  Hudson River School (Church, Cole, Doughty and Durand) painted vistas of the unsettled Hudson Valley  Sir Walter Scott was the most popular writer, British, historical novels

5 The Romantic Impulse  James Fennimore Cooper was the first great American novelist (master of adventure and suspense) Leatherstocking Tales, Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer  Walt Whitman was the self- proclaimed poet of American democracy, preached liberation of the individual

6 The Romantic Impulse  Herman Melville: greatest American novelist, wrote Moby Dick  Edgar Allen Poe: produced stories that were primarily sad and macabre, explored deeper world of spirit and emotions  Southern Literature produced historical romances or romantic eulogies of the plantation system of the upper south

7 The Romantic Impulse  Longstreet, Baldwin, Hooper focused not on "cavalier image" but on backwoods farmers, poor whites  Transcendentalists argued against using intellect in the narrow, artificial ways imposed by society, each individual should strive to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the emotions of the soul to create an original relation to the Universe

8 The Romantic Impulse  Ralph Waldo Emerson from Massachusetts was most renowned for his essays and lectures  Henry David Thoreau repudiated the repressive forces of society, lived alone in the woods for 2 years, emphasized living simply

9 The Romantic Impulse  Brook Farm (Westbury Massachusetts) established by George Ripley, all residents would share equally in the labor of the community, share too in the leisure, when a fire burned the central building the experiment dissolved in 1847

10 The Romantic Impulse  Nathaniel Hawthorne expressed disillusionment with the experiment, Scarlet Letter, The House of Seven Gables wrote about the price individuals pay for cutting themselves off from society

11 The Romantic Impulse  New Harmony (Indiana) founded by Robert Owen "Village of Cooperation", every resident worked and lived in total equality, economic failure

12 The Romantic Impulse  Margaret Fuller, leading transcendentalist, suggested the important relationship in discovery of the self and questioning of gender roles “I would have Woman lay aside all thought, such as she habitually cherishes, of being taught and led by men.” Margaret Fuller

13 The Romantic Impulse  Oneida Community: established in upstate New York by John Noyes, rejected traditional notions of family and marriage, children raised communally

14 The Romantic Impulse  Shakers were founded by Mother Anee Lee, members of the congregation would shake themselves free of sin, commitment to complete celibacy, all people had to chose faith voluntarily

15 The Romantic Impulse  Amana Community was founded by German immigrants in Iowa, attempted to realize Christian ideals by creating an ordered, socialist society

16 The Romantic Impulse  Mormons began in up state New York - moved to Navuoo, Illinois under Joseph Smith who was attacked and killed there  Brigham Young led the Mormons west and established a community in Salt Lake City, created a highly organized, centrally directed, almost militarized social structure

17 Remaking Society New reform movements began to work on behalf of temperance, education, peace, care of the poor and handicapped, rights of women New reform movements began to work on behalf of temperance, education, peace, care of the poor and handicapped, rights of women

18 Remaking Society New Light Revivalists believed every individual was capable of salvation, Charles Grandison Finny was the most influential revival leader, preached in the Burned Over District which was the Erie Canal area which was prone to religious awakening New Light Revivalists believed every individual was capable of salvation, Charles Grandison Finny was the most influential revival leader, preached in the Burned Over District which was the Erie Canal area which was prone to religious awakening

19 Remaking Society Temperance Crusade claimed that alcoholism was responsible for crime, disorder and poverty, American Society for the Promotion of Temperance used the techniques of revivalism in preaching abstinence Temperance Crusade claimed that alcoholism was responsible for crime, disorder and poverty, American Society for the Promotion of Temperance used the techniques of revivalism in preaching abstinence

20 Remaking Society Cholera Epidemics broke out in which thousands of people died, cities were pressured to establish health boards Cholera Epidemics broke out in which thousands of people died, cities were pressured to establish health boards Sylvester Graham advocated eating fruits, vegetables and bread instead of meat Sylvester Graham advocated eating fruits, vegetables and bread instead of meat

21 Remaking Society Phrenology argued that the shape of a persons skull was an important indicator of his or her character and intelligence Phrenology argued that the shape of a persons skull was an important indicator of his or her character and intelligence

22 Remaking Society Medical Profession had little prestige, career of a last resort, almost no one had any idea how diseases were transmitted, contagion was eventually discovered Medical Profession had little prestige, career of a last resort, almost no one had any idea how diseases were transmitted, contagion was eventually discovered

23 Remaking Society During the 1830's interest in public education grew, Horace Mann reorganized the Massachusetts school system, enriched curriculum, new training for teachers During the 1830's interest in public education grew, Horace Mann reorganized the Massachusetts school system, enriched curriculum, new training for teachers

24 Remaking Society By the 1850's the principle of tax- supported elementary schools had been accepted in all the states, in the West many had no access to schools, in the South blacks were barred from education, only about 1/3 of children nationwide enrolled in schools By the 1850's the principle of tax- supported elementary schools had been accepted in all the states, in the West many had no access to schools, in the South blacks were barred from education, only about 1/3 of children nationwide enrolled in schools

25 Remaking Society Benevolent Empire created new institutions to help the handicapped, asylums were created for criminals and the mentally ill, Dorothea Dix began a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill. Benevolent Empire created new institutions to help the handicapped, asylums were created for criminals and the mentally ill, Dorothea Dix began a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill.

26 Remaking Society Almshouses helped the poor who could not work their way up in society, Indian Reservations were created in order to protect them from whites and allowed them to develop Almshouses helped the poor who could not work their way up in society, Indian Reservations were created in order to protect them from whites and allowed them to develop

27 Remaking Society Women began to involve themselves in reform movements, Grimke Sisters argued men and women were created equal, Quakerism embraced the idea of sexual equality, leading role in anti-slavery movement Women began to involve themselves in reform movements, Grimke Sisters argued men and women were created equal, Quakerism embraced the idea of sexual equality, leading role in anti-slavery movement

28 Remaking Society Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a convention in Seneca Falls to discuss the question of women's rights Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a convention in Seneca Falls to discuss the question of women's rights

29 Remaking Society Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions stated all men and women where created equal, women have inalienable rights, demanded the right to vote Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions stated all men and women where created equal, women have inalienable rights, demanded the right to vote

30 The Crusade Against Slavery  American Colonization Society proposed a gradual manumission of slaves, masters receiving compensation through funds collected and then would transport freed slaves out of the country, established the nation of Liberia (capital Monrovia after the president)

31 The Crusade Against Slavery  Response of African Americans was that they did not want to be shipped to Africa, colonization was not a viable method of attacking the institution of slavery

32 The Crusade Against Slavery  William Lloyd Garrison founded the Liberator, demanded immediate universal abolition of slavery, leader of the New England Antislavery Society and the American Antislavery Society­

33 The Crusade Against Slavery  Free Blacks in many instances lived in conditions worse then those of slaves, victimized by mob violence, no access to education, cold not vote, barred from most occupations - worked as domestic servants or sailors  David Walker was a free black from Boston, violent abolitionist, declared slaves should cut their masters throat

34 The Crusade Against Slavery  Sojourner Truth was a powerful and eloquent spokeswoman for abolition of slavery “Ain’t I a Woman?”  Frederick Douglass was the greatest African American abolitionist of all, started the North Star, received wide acclaim for his autobiography

35 The Crusade Against Slavery  In the North abolitionists were a minority, feared it might lead to an influx of free blacks, threat to stability and order  Prudence Crandall attempted admit blacks to her private school, opposition caused it to close down

36 The Crusade Against Slavery  Elijah Lovejoy had a mob smash his printing press that he used to print an abolitionist newspaper, eventually murdered  Garrison was an extremist who attacked the Constitution, and the church, insisted that women be treated on terms of full equality, extreme pacifism, rejected defensive wars, a call for northern disunion

37 The Crusade Against Slavery  The Amistad - Africans destined for slavery in Cuba seized the ship from its crew, Supreme Court declared the Africans free

38 The Crusade Against Slavery  Prigg vs. Pennsylvania ruled that sates need not aid in enforcing the law requiring the return of fugitive slaves to their owners­  Personal Liberty Laws forbade the state officials to assist in the capture and return of runaways

39 The Crusade Against Slavery  Liberty Party offered James G. Birney as its presidential candidate stood for Free Soil which meant keeping slavery out of the territories - attracted majority of white population

40 The Crusade Against Slavery  Harriet Beacher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, most powerful document of abolitionist propaganda


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