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Slide 1 Inter War Years MOI. Slide 2 The west turns a blind eye.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Inter War Years MOI. Slide 2 The west turns a blind eye."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Inter War Years MOI

2 Slide 2 The west turns a blind eye

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives Comprehend why the interwar period represented only an armistice rather than genuine peace or international stability by describing attempts at peace and why they failed Comprehend why the interwar period represented only an armistice rather than genuine peace or international stability by describing attempts at peace and why they failed Know and explain the bases of American isolationism in 1920’s - 30’s, and the resultant impact on defense preparedness Know and explain the bases of American isolationism in 1920’s - 30’s, and the resultant impact on defense preparedness Know and explain the “doctrine of defense”, with emphasis on the Maginot philosophy and the thoughts/contributions of Liddell Hart Know and explain the “doctrine of defense”, with emphasis on the Maginot philosophy and the thoughts/contributions of Liddell Hart

4 Slide 4 Reference Archer Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Archer Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 278 – 294 Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 278 – 294

5 Slide 5 Attempts at Peace The Aftermath The Aftermath - High costs of War in human and material - New attitude of revulsion against war - Need to recover and build a system to prevent war again Out come of peacemaking endeavors; Out come of peacemaking endeavors; - League of Nations; principle of collective security - Disarmament; not total, but a limit on Arms

6 Slide 6 Attempts at Peace Cont’d True peace or a 20-year cease-fire True peace or a 20-year cease-fire -Temporary, shallow peace - No practical solutions

7 Slide 7 Americans Withdraw Isolationism Isolationism - Avoid being dragged into war again - Return to prewar strengths - US its own best guarantor of peace Isolationism deepens as the Depression years unfold Isolationism deepens as the Depression years unfold - Economic problems - Reduction of military - Anti-military service sentiment appears Defense preparedness takes a back seat Defense preparedness takes a back seat

8 Slide 8 Doctrine of Defense An outgrowth of post-World War 1 reaction An outgrowth of post-World War 1 reaction Passive security dominates military thought Passive security dominates military thought - Maginot Line in France - Fortified with integrated firepower - Created false sense of security - Stifled offensive planning

9 Slide 9 Composition of Forces Land Forces Interwar Armies adjusted according to results of WWI Interwar Armies adjusted according to results of WWI Reforms made by losers to avoid previous failures Reforms made by losers to avoid previous failures Victors - returned to pre-1914, colonial type forces Victors - returned to pre-1914, colonial type forces Vanquished Countries developed new weapons Vanquished Countries developed new weapons

10 Slide 10 Composition of Forces Sea Forces Principle Navies; United States, Britain, Japan, France and Italy Principle Navies; United States, Britain, Japan, France and Italy Adopted attitudes towards new weapons was conditioned by traditional position and potential enemies Adopted attitudes towards new weapons was conditioned by traditional position and potential enemies Future roles of battleships, aircraft, and submarines obscured by technological uncertainty Future roles of battleships, aircraft, and submarines obscured by technological uncertainty –Confusion reflected in naval conferences –Washington , Geneva , London & 1935

11 Slide 11 Air Forces Sought to achieve independent Roles Sought to achieve independent Roles Air demonstrations of potential military value at every opportunity Air demonstrations of potential military value at every opportunity Technological advances slow until early ‘30’s Technological advances slow until early ‘30’s Deterrence not practical until after 1935 Deterrence not practical until after 1935

12 Slide 12 Theorists Britain- where strongest against the incompetent way the war was fought on the Western Front Britain- where strongest against the incompetent way the war was fought on the Western Front Theorists included: Theorists included: - Admiral Sir Herbert Richmond - Major General J.F.C Fuller - Captain B. H. Liddell Hart General Mitchell, U.S.- air power General Mitchell, U.S.- air power Major C.D. Barrett, U.S – first manual for landing operations Major C.D. Barrett, U.S – first manual for landing operations Colonel DeGaulle, France – armor in France Colonel DeGaulle, France – armor in France

13 Slide 13 National Armed Forces, U.S. (Land) Machine Gun recognized, Truck, Tank and Plane not fully appreciated Machine Gun recognized, Truck, Tank and Plane not fully appreciated National Defense Act of reverted to mobilization plans of 1927 National Defense Act of reverted to mobilization plans of 1927 Infantry Army envisioned, but no selective service Infantry Army envisioned, but no selective service Isolationism - Army cut to 119,000 men Isolationism - Army cut to 119,000 men

14 Slide 14 National Armed Forces, U.S. (Sea) Navy revived 1916 program - rendered most ships under construction obsolete Navy revived 1916 program - rendered most ships under construction obsolete Navy concentrated on Carriers and Air Ships - conference limitations on Battleships Navy concentrated on Carriers and Air Ships - conference limitations on Battleships Later returned to building battleships to balance fleet Later returned to building battleships to balance fleet Amphibious Warfare developed by USMC Amphibious Warfare developed by USMC

15 Slide 15 National Armed Forces, U.S. (Air) Army Air Service championed by General Billy Mitchell (wartime hero) Army Air Service championed by General Billy Mitchell (wartime hero) Mitchell ahead of times - eventually sacked for disobedience Mitchell ahead of times - eventually sacked for disobedience Later, Mitchell’s claims were evaluated and Army Air Corps was established Later, Mitchell’s claims were evaluated and Army Air Corps was established Strategic Bombing Doctrine Developed Strategic Bombing Doctrine Developed and the B-17 prototype tested and the B-17 prototype tested

16 Slide 16 National Armed forces, Britain (Land) British Army followed colonial heritage, fought mechanization British Army followed colonial heritage, fought mechanization Growth extremely slow, despite Fuller and Hart publication in 1929 of army field manual Growth extremely slow, despite Fuller and Hart publication in 1929 of army field manual Result - British tanks technically superior to Germans, but were attached to trenched infantry that they were quickly destroyed by Germans Result - British tanks technically superior to Germans, but were attached to trenched infantry that they were quickly destroyed by Germans

17 Slide 17 National Armed Forces, Britain (Sea) Royal Navy reduced by politicians and disarmament treaties Royal Navy reduced by politicians and disarmament treaties Little effort to submarines, carriers, or antisubmarine Warfare Little effort to submarines, carriers, or antisubmarine Warfare New dimensions in Naval Warfare were disregarded New dimensions in Naval Warfare were disregarded

18 Slide 18 National Armed Forces, Britain (Air) RAF used to police primitive tribal areas RAF used to police primitive tribal areas Home defense handled better by RAF than by older two services Home defense handled better by RAF than by older two services Counter-strike deterrent force developed Counter-strike deterrent force developed Stress of fighters for home defense came just in time to save Britain in 1940 Stress of fighters for home defense came just in time to save Britain in 1940

19 Slide 19 National Armed Forces, France Fear of revived Germany dominated Paris Fear of revived Germany dominated Paris France retained most powerful army and air force in Europe France retained most powerful army and air force in Europe Cordon Sanitaire attempted around Germany by France Cordon Sanitaire attempted around Germany by France Maginot Line constructed Maginot Line constructed By political struggles crippled military By political struggles crippled military

20 Slide 20 National Armed Forces, Italy Mussolini’s fascist government revived prestige of military Mussolini’s fascist government revived prestige of military Army modernized and highly mechanized Army modernized and highly mechanized Air Force given full independence Air Force given full independence Forces exercised in Ethiopia ( ) and Spain ( ) Forces exercised in Ethiopia ( ) and Spain ( ) However, as war began Italian armed services were in decline (lack of modern material, economic base or morale to fight) However, as war began Italian armed services were in decline (lack of modern material, economic base or morale to fight)

21 Slide 21 National Armed Forces, Japan (Land) Dominated by Samurai tradition, developed along German lines Dominated by Samurai tradition, developed along German lines Mechanization, mobility, and jungle operations Mechanization, mobility, and jungle operations Fought in China from 1931 Fought in China from 1931 Army Air Force - rapid progress, but fought second class enemies and technical developments neglected Army Air Force - rapid progress, but fought second class enemies and technical developments neglected

22 Slide 22 Japan ready for war.

23 Slide 23 National Armed Forces, Japan (Sea and Air) Carriers - great strides in development (under British instruction) Carriers - great strides in development (under British instruction) Cruisers and destroyers excellent, torpedoes were highly potent Cruisers and destroyers excellent, torpedoes were highly potent No strategic bombing force (no need for it) No strategic bombing force (no need for it) Suspicious of U.S. and the lack of a stand by the Allies in Manchuria led to East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere (expansion plan) Suspicious of U.S. and the lack of a stand by the Allies in Manchuria led to East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere (expansion plan)

24 Slide 24 National Armed Forces, Russia Badly demoralized failure of Czar leadership Badly demoralized failure of Czar leadership Made mechanization the symbol of the revolution Made mechanization the symbol of the revolution German help, British thought, and American ingenuity; highly mobile, infantry carrying tanks German help, British thought, and American ingenuity; highly mobile, infantry carrying tanks Supply Corps established Supply Corps established Compromise between military/communist party Compromise between military/communist party Military and political general staffs created Military and political general staffs created Air Force reborn with help from Germany Air Force reborn with help from Germany Hitler struck before work complete Hitler struck before work complete

25 Slide 25 National Armed Forces, Germany (Land) Deprived of power by treaty Deprived of power by treaty Army experiments and remolds doctrine Army experiments and remolds doctrine Regular army became a cadre of officers Regular army became a cadre of officers Works of Fuller and Hart translated and elaborated Works of Fuller and Hart translated and elaborated Hitler gave the army more support Hitler gave the army more support Mechanization proceeded and equipment tested in Spanish Civil War Mechanization proceeded and equipment tested in Spanish Civil War General staff openly resumed Pre-Versailles power General staff openly resumed Pre-Versailles power

26 Slide 26 National Armed Forces, Germany (Sea and Air) Raeder developed new U-Boats Raeder developed new U-Boats Pocket battleships developed Pocket battleships developed Bismark and Tirpitz constructed Bismark and Tirpitz constructed Luftwaffe mushroomed under Goering Luftwaffe mushroomed under Goering Tactical Air Force only good for Blitzkrieg, but not for long term war Tactical Air Force only good for Blitzkrieg, but not for long term war

27 Slide 27 Summary Interwar years characterized by military peacetime problems (economy, cutbacks and complacency) Interwar years characterized by military peacetime problems (economy, cutbacks and complacency) Major nations treated armed forces in the interwar years as diplomatic position Major nations treated armed forces in the interwar years as diplomatic position Disarmament movement acted as a brake until collapse in Geneva in 1934 Disarmament movement acted as a brake until collapse in Geneva in 1934 Then there was a universal shift or rearmament, especially in the air Then there was a universal shift or rearmament, especially in the air

28 Slide 28 Questions?


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