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Amphibious Warfare1 Evolution of Warfare Inter War Years & Marine Corps.

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Presentation on theme: "Amphibious Warfare1 Evolution of Warfare Inter War Years & Marine Corps."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amphibious Warfare1 Evolution of Warfare Inter War Years & Marine Corps

2 Amphibious Warfare2 Significance u League of Nations u Rise of Hitler and Japan u Emergence of the Mission u Amphibious Warfare Doctrine u Fleet Marine Force (FMF)

3 Amphibious Warfare3 Main Themes in WWI u Brutality of large scale warfare –Modern weapons combined with antiquated tactics u Fully mobilized national economies –Singling out of civilians as legitmate targets u Unrestricted Submarine Warfare –Violates freedom of the seas.

4 Amphibious Warfare4 Adolf Hitler u Born in Austira-1889 u Deserter from Austrian army u WWI: Corporal- messenger in trenches u Iron Cross u Blames WWI on Jews and Marxists

5 Amphibious Warfare5 Hitler (cont.) u After war joined espionage section of Armistice Army u : Ran public conspiracy against Weimar Republic –Tried and imprisoned for treason –Wrote Mein Kampf –Chancellor of Germany by 1933

6 Amphibious Warfare6 Interwar Period u Interwar Period ( ) –Anti-War Movement –Washington Naval Conference –Theorists of future war »Billy Mitchell (Air Power) »Liddell Hart (Armor) –Experimental Wars »Spanish Civil War, »Japan in China, 1931 »Russo-Japanese border conflicts, 1939

7 Amphibious Warfare7 The 1920’s u US Policy – Isolationists –President Harding “normalcy” u Washington Conference –Non Fortification Clause –5:5:3 Ratio –US, Britain and Japan Claims –Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty »10 year holiday in capital ship construction »Scrapping program

8 Amphibious Warfare8 Composition of Forces u Land Forces –Interwar armies adjusted to peace according to where they finished in WWI –Victor closed eyes returned to pre-1914 –Conquered countries bettered Victors in inventing and perfection new weapons u Sea Forces –Principal Navies: US, Britain, Japan, France and Italy

9 Amphibious Warfare9 Composition of Forces u Air Forces –During interwar period air forces sought to achieve independent roles –Demonstrated potential military value –Technological advances slow until 1930’s

10 Amphibious Warfare10 Theorists u MGen J.F.C. Fuller & CAPT Hart –Theory of mechanized land warfare –Overcome battlefield deadlock u General Billy Mitchell –Ahead of his time: Saw airplane as way to defend America and attack enemy –Strategic bombing doctrine

11 Amphibious Warfare11 USMC in the 1920’s u Defense of Advance Bases –Marine Corps mission prior to 1920’s u Major General Lejuene –Congress –Marine Corps Schools –“New Body of Amphibious Doctrine”

12 Amphibious Warfare12 Major General Lejune u Established Marine Corps Schools –MCI, MCS Quantico(TBS), AWS, C&S u Established rapport with Congress –Civil war reenactments “dog & pony” –Master politician

13 Amphibious Warfare13 USMC in the 1920’s u Lieutenant Colonel Earl “Pete” Ellis u Work is prophetic u “Advanced Base Operations in Micronesia” u Strategic Operations u Tactics u War Plan Orange (OP PLAN 712)

14 Amphibious Warfare14 USMC in the 1920’s u Amphibious Exercises –Culebra –Hawaii u Marines still carrying out other missions –China, Nicaragua, Haiti, U.S. Postal Service u Joint Board recognizes special ability and affinity of the United States Marine Corps –Establishment of Amphibious Role

15 Amphibious Warfare15 The 1930’s u US Policy remains Isolationists –Roosevelt, Hitler, Japan expansion u Great Depression u United States Marine Corps –Schools develop Doctrine - Gallipoli is “ The Center Piece” –Philosophy-organized fleet landing units

16 Amphibious Warfare16 December 1933 u SECNAV (Claude Swanson) and CMC (Major General John H. Russell) –Order 241 –Fleet Marine Force –Organization u Tentative Landing Operations Manual (9 January 1934) u Becomes Landing Operations Doctrine US Navy 1938

17 Amphibious Warfare17 Tentative Landing Operations Manual u Modern Military Theory u Established Essential Topics –CE –NGF –Ship to Shore –Beach Heads –Logistics & Communications –Embarkation –6 Phases of Amphibious Operations Established

18 Amphibious Warfare18 Phases of Amphibious Operations.... u Planning u Embarkation u Rehearsal u Movement to Objective Area u Assault u Termination (objective secured) u PERMAT

19 Amphibious Warfare19 Main Themes in WWII u Combined Arms Warfare –Integration of multiple weapons systems to put the enemy in a dilemma u Maneuver Warfare (both land & sea) –Attack the enemy’s weakness, find gaps. –Identify and eliminate the enemy’s center of gravity u Information Weapons –Radar, Cryptography

20 Amphibious Warfare20 Second World War u Blitzkrieg - Modern Maneuver Warfare –Large, Independent Armor Formations –Surfaces & Gaps u Large Scale Use of Air Forces –Strategic Bombing –Close Air Support –Battles for Air Supremacy u Ascendancy of the Aircraft Carrier


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