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The Invasion of the Asian Carp: Silver and Bigheaded Carp in our Waters

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2 The Invasion of the Asian Carp: Silver and Bigheaded Carp in our Waters
Jesse Zastrow, Jerome Barner, Zach Fournier, Eamon Harrity April 14, 2010 ENSC 202 Professor: Stephanie Hurley

3 Hype U.S. Supreme Court may rule on Asian carp case
Environmental groups say plan to fight Asian carp not enough Granholm calls Obama carp plan weak Feds unveil $78.5M effort to blunt Lakes migration of carp From The Detroit News: /METRO/ #ixzz0kTtbznvx A lot of media attention… big wigs involved, politicians and money also very much involved.

4 What is the real deal? With all the media hype we wanted to do some investigation of our own to better understand the real situation and if champlain is at any risk “Asian carp are like cancer cells," said Cameron Davis, senior adviser with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "They can grow and spread very, very quickly and overtake other healthy living organisms." -Belkin, D Wall Street Journal Nov

5 Problem Statement The Silver and Bigheaded carp are invasive planktivorous fish that could have serious social, economic and ecological impacts on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.

6 Basic Outline Introduction Findings Conclusions and Recommendations
Goals and Objectives Findings The Carp The Great lake and Lake Champlain Vectors of introduction Preventative Measures Conclusions and Recommendations

7 Goals Assess the risk posed by Asian carp to Great Lakes
How likely is it that they will make it to and survive in the Great Lakes? Will they be able to migrate within the lakes? What kind of impacts could they have on the lake system? Ultimately, what is the likelihood that the carp will make it to Lake Champlain and what impacts could they have here.

8 Objectives Investigate the current status of the carp
Distribution, impacts on inhabited areas Describe the life history of the carp Familiarize ourselves with the characteristics of the lakes Assess possible vectors and pathways into and between the lakes Explore existing and potential prevention practices Investigate potential economic, social and ecological impacts of these fish (conclusions)

9 Findings

10 Asian Carp Images from Kolar, 2005.
Figure 1: Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) Figure 2: Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Images from Kolar, 2005.

11 Asian Carp Brought in to improve water quality and promote production in aquaculture ponds, reservoirs, and improve conditions in sewage pools primarily in Arkansas. First introduced to US from private fish farmers in Arkansas (1972 – bighead, 1973 – Silver) for aquaculture pond clean up, later used in federal, state, and private facilities then municipal water management ponds. Silver Carp have been recorded in 12 states, and Bighead at least 18 states. Introduced to waters from dumping of bait fish, flooding of stocked ponds, illegal stocking of reservoirs & lakes etc.

12 Asian Carp Introduction cont’d
Figure 4: Range of Bighead Carp in the US, as of August, 2009 (1Fuller, 2009). Figure 3: Range of Silver Carp in the US, as of August, 2009 (2Fuller, 2009).

13 Asian Carp Native Distribution
Figure 5: Native range of Bighead Carp, mainly large rivers and lakes of southeastern Asia; eastern China, eastern Siberia, and the extreme northern range of North Korea (Kolar et al., 2005) Figure 6: Native range of Silver Carp, mainly large rivers and lakes of eastern China and eastern Russia that run into the Pacific Ocean (Kolar et al., 2005) Occur in freshwaters including rivers and lakes in their native China. Needs fast-moving water (rivers) for spawning, otherwise prefers slow-moving waters such as lakes, ponds, and flooded backwaters

14 Asian Carp Habitat Has been introduced to reservoirs, canals, man-made ponds and lakes, etc. where they do well. Spawn in spring, tributary use highest in winter according to a study by DCC on the Missouri River. Table 1: Data collected in the US in 2004, depicting rivers and habitats of juvenille Bighead and Silver Carp. Table from (Kolar et al., 2005), author cited contacts as the field biologists who provided the data.

15 Asian Carp Temperature
Very temperature tolerant; Adult Asian Carp have been shown to survive in temperatures ranging 2°C to 40°C. A variety of sources document varying optimal temperature ranges, most fall between 20 and 30°C. Temperature fluctuations not necessary for reproduction although it is characteristic of their native range. Reproductive Biology Fecundity increases with body size and weight. Many ranges of Asian Carp reproduction success, from 280,000 to 1,860,800 per Bighead female and 145,000 to 5,000,000 per Silver female, varying from location and study. Fecundity of Bighead Carp from the lower Missouri River collected in ranged from 11,588 to 769,964, with an average of 226,213 eggs (Schrank and Guy 2002). A study of 6 Silver Carp in the Mississippi River in 2003 showed a range of total fecundity as 57,283 to 328,538 eggs.

16 Asian Carp Feeding Habits
Table 2: Comparison of feeding habits between Bighead carp and Silver carp (Kolar et al., 2005).

17 Asian Carp They consume 7-14% of their body weight in food.
Feeding They consume 7-14% of their body weight in food. Bighead carp has been shown to prefer Daphnia (Cooke et al., 2009). Asian carp have been shown to consume different ratios of zooplankton and phytoplankton based on life stage and abundance of plankton. Bighead carp revert to phytoplankton when zooplankton levels are low, mainly blue-green algae, diatoms, and green algae. Extremely adaptive feeding habits, change natural zooplankton and phytoplankton composition and feed on detritus if necessary. Bighead carp primarily zooplanktivores, less specialized than Silver. Adult Silver carp primarily feed on phytoplankton, larvae on zooplankton. Gill rakers capable of straining phytoplankton down to 4 um in diameter (Chen et al., 2007).

18 Asian Carp Outcompeting native fish for food
Potential Impact on Recreation/Fishing Industry Outcompeting native fish for food Concern for native filter feeding fish like Paddlefish, Bigmouth Buffalo, and Gizzard Shad, as well as many other fish with overlapping food requirements. Fishermen overwhelmed with amount of carp, cannot catch anything else. Carp jumping, hitting fishermen, boaters, tubers, etc. DANGEROUS! The Great Lakes contribute $7 billion to the economy through commercial and sport • fishing, and an additional $8 to $10 billion through recreational boating (FWS 2009). Jumping Carp

19 Physical Characteristics of each Lake of Concern
Lake Characteristics Lake Champlain Lake Michigan Lake Erie Length 120 miles 307 miles 241 miles Width 12 miles 118 miles 57 miles Average Depth 64 feet 279 feet 62 feet Drainage Area 8,234 square miles 45,000 square miles 30,140 square miles Surface Area 435 square miles 22,300 square miles 9,910 square miles We focused on these lakes because they seem to be the most likely for invasion

20 Ecological Status of the Great Lakes Region
The Great Lakes ecosystem is the largest freshwater ecosystem in the world. The Great Lakes ecosystem is an extensive watershed (288,000 square miles) with 5,000 tributaries and 9,000 miles of shoreline. Important sport fish in the ecosystem include: Lake trout, Brook trout, Lake sturgeon, Yellow perch, Lake whitefish, Muskellunge, Walleye , Chinook salmon, and Coho salmon US FWS Midwest Region Hot topic: Asian Carp

21 Ecological Status of the Great Lakes Region
Significantly degraded over the past few decades due to human use and influx of invasive species Invasive plants, fish, invertebrates, and macrophytes have devastated native population 180+ Invasive species currently inhabiting the Lakes (Modley, 2010) Asian Carp- another potential stressor to the aquatic ecosystem In the Mississippi River System they outcompete the native fish such as bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad, and paddlefish for the phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass

22 General aquatic food web may be used to predict the potential impacts of the Asian carp on the ecological system of the lakes.

23 Eutrophic Conditions of Lake Michigan and Lake Erie
Values ranging from indicate oligotrophic conditions; values from indicate mesotrophic conditions (shaded area); values above 1.0 indicate eutrophic conditions. Data points represent average of triplicate samples taken at each sampling site. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006)

24 Zooplankton Densities in Lake Champlain
Missisquoi Bay St. Albans Bay Cumberland Bay The net zooplankton density of the thousands of organisms per square meter in Lake Champlain sampled throughout the 15 stations.

25 Potential Pathways Chicago Shipping and Sanitary Canal
Des Plaines River Overland flooding Other canals Human facilitated introduction (Modley, Personal communication 2010; Daniels, R 2000; Hill, W 2008; FWS 2010; Cooke et al. 2009)

26 Chicago Shipping and Sanitary Canal
A stretch of man made canal

27 CSSC A man-made canal, constructed in the early 1900s as a sewage drain It is the only shipping link between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River System Currently it is 28 miles long 202 ft wide and 22 ft deep. 28 miles long 202 ft wide, 22 ft deep.

28 Des Plaines River Flooding greatly increases this fish’s mobility and may pose as a serious complication to any prevention measure Modley 2010, FWS 2010 Flooding could carry carp over land past the electronic barrier and render the installment useless

29 OOPS! Accidental Introduction
The Great Lakes have around 184 known invasive species and quite a few have been traced back to the ballast waters of cargo ships. Rainbow Smelt, Fishhook water Flea, Fourspine Stickleback Grass carp still shipped around the country for plankton control in aquaculture ponds For all your carp stocking needs! Looking at the literature, it seems the poly-carp stocking practice has declined significantly since the early 2000’s 50,000 invasives in the USA 65% of invasives in the laurentian lakes introduced via ballast waters. Ricciardi, 2006; u/~agexten/aquaculture/Pondweed.pdf

30 Human Facilitated Introduction
Bait Fish Awaiting response from local baitfish shops Alewife believed to have been introduced as a bait fish on accident Culinary market They are a staple food in their native range and are slowly gaining popularity here Bigheaded carp is shipped live as a specialty food item As small markets develop so does the movement of this carp “We shouldn't be trying to eradicate it; it's too late for that. We should be eating it.” Steve Mcnitt- Schafer Fisheries in Thomson, Ill (Los Angeles Times, Jan )

31 New York State Canal System
A valid point to bring up is the separation of the lakes

32 NYSCS 524 miles of canals connecting Lake Erie to the finger lakes, Hudson River and Lake Champlain 12 ft deep in most places Warm, nutrient rich waters that support thriving sport fish populations Small and Large mouth bass, walleye, panfish northern pike, blueback herring and coho salmon

33 Champlain Canal 60 miles of shallow nutrient rich water
As many as 12 invasive species including zebra mussels and white perch thought to have arrived through this canal Shipping traffic much lower than in the past, mostly for recreational use now Modley (2010) believes that the carp would be more than capable of migrating up this canal into Lake Champlain Chambly canal connects lake champ with

34 Asian Carp Preventative Measures Overview
Current Preventative Measures CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier eDNA Sampling Rapid Response Plan Electrofishing/Netting/Targeted Removal Alternative Preventative Measures Physical Controls Biological/Chemical Controls Social Controls

35 Current Preventative Measures

36 CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier
Only dispersal barrier between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River basin Structure: - steel cables with electrodes on either end non-lethal, gradual electric field created underwater uncomfortable for fish to pass (USACE 2007)

37 CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier Cont’d
Two barrier system Barrier I (demonstration) 1 Volts/Inch, pulsing 5Hz every 4ms NANPCA, completed April 2002, temporary Stretches 54 feet of canal (USACE 2009) Barrier II Barrier II-A 2 Volts/Inch, pulsing 15 Hz every 6.5 ms 1300ft downstream Barrier I Completed April 2008, permanent (Asian Carp Working Group 2010) Barrier II-B Same operating capacity as II-A 800 ft downstream Barrier I Slated for completion October 2010 (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)

38 CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier Cont’d
Effectiveness Cost Time-Scale Dependant upon: Barrier I : $4 million (2007) completed April 2002 Current velocity Barrier II : project ceiling II A: completed 04/2008 Water Temperature $16 million (2007) IIB: slated completion Conductivity (USACE 2009) 08/2010 ( Dettmers et al. 2009) Carp life stage (juvenile?) (Brammeier et al 2008) Electric Barrier shown to be ~ 90-99% effective ( Brammeir et al. 2008) - MDNR study in 2004 found electric barrier + acoustic bubbler to be ~ 83 % effective HIGH UNCERTAINTY

39 eDNA Sampling Developed at U. of Notre Dame, current method of Carp detection (USACE 2009) Examines local water samples for traces of carp DNA Mucoidal secretions Feces / urine Tissue Presence/Non-presence determined by identified genetic marker (Lodge 2010) Effectiveness: Greater ease of detection Does not account for specimen life history traits, quantity present, or exact location (Lodge 2010) Cost: Current total: $2,600,000 Future Estimates: $940,000 (Asian Carp Working Group 2010) Figure: Two sites depicting positive detections, Site A is the Brandon Road pool, Site B is near power plant in Dresden Island pool

40 Rapid Response Program
“We believe it is still critical to support and defend the electric barrier while it is down for maintenance,” said IDNR Assistant Director John Rogner. “The barrier remains our most effective weapon against this very aggressive invasive species” (IDNR 2009).

41 Rapid Response Program cont’d
Maintenance on barriers required every 4-6 months, barriers are turned off (USFWS 2010) Rapid Response Program implemented during these maintenance periods Program consists of dumping piscicide into CSSC to eliminate all biota (Asian Carp Working Group 2010) Rotenone chosen by EPA as most effective means to eliminate Asian carp Derived from roots of tropical/sub tropical plants Inhibits biochemical processes at cellular level No fish is immune => death (US EPA 2007)

42 Rapid Response Program cont’d
Effectiveness: Studies show 65-95% effective in killing target species (Brammeier et al. 2008) Rapid Response implemented in December 2009 in CSSC yielded over 90 tons of dead fish, including one Asian carp (Hood 2009) Cost Cost of Rotenone very high, $1 / acre foot December 2009 application: 2,200 gallons dumped into CSSC over three day = $3 million (Hood 2009) Timescale Rotenone degrades rapidly , ceasing to affect fish after a few hours, becomes non-toxic after 4-6 weeks (US EPA 2008) Application of Rotenone in accordance with routine maintenance schedules

43 Electro-fishing/ Netting/ Targeted Removal
In accordance with Asian Carp Working Group Control Strategy Framework (Feb. 2010) Utilizes current eDNA sampling methods Data reveals carp hotspots above barrier system where carp have been positively identified Warm water discharges Wastewater treatment plant outfalls Tail waters of locks and dams Marina basins Barge Slips Other slack water areas Within target areas, fish are concentrated to a confined area (electro-fishing, acoustics, nets) Removed via application of Rotenone (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)

44 Electro-fishing/ Netting/ Targeted Removal
Effectiveness: Proven to be effective method to eradicate fish in given area Control study by IDNR downstream of barrier system yielded Asian carp in eDNA identified area (MDNR et al. 2010) Likelihood of success directly linked to expedience of eDNA sample analyzation, fish are mobile Speeding up eDNA methods critical to effectvie removal! Cost Estimated cost for implementation of this program (~April 2010) : $2 million (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)

45 Alternative Preventative Measures

46 Physical Methods Physical Barriers Vertical Drop Barrier
Hydraulic drop greater than carp leaping ability (~10 ft) Dams, feasible in small tributaries => % effective (Brammeier et al. 2007) Rotating Drum Screens Drums set in-stream on a cable Continually turn, allow passage of fine debris but not carp ( MDNR et al. 2004) Small scale, % effective Floating Curtains Floating curtain attached to pilings across water body Allows fine debris to pass; small scale => % effective (MDNR et al. 2004) High Velocity Structures Concentrated areas of high velocity Flat aprons in dam spillways, velocity faster than carp swimming speed Highly effective, small scale (MDNR et al. 2004)

47 Physical Methods cont’d
Bubble Curtains Perforated tube laid across bottom of channel, compressed air pumped through creating wall of bubbles 50-95% effective Construction and operating costs: $0.5-1 million Strobe Lights Most effective when utilized in concert with other deterrents (bubble curtains, acoustic deflections) 60-95% effective in eel study (MDNR et al. 2004) Cost: $0.5-1 million, but only to be used at channel entrances (Brammeier et al. 2007) (MDNR et al. 2004)

48 Physical Methods cont’d
Acoustic Deterrents Sound Projector Array Electronic signal generator, several powerful amplifiers, under water array of sound projectors (MDNR et al. 2004) 80% effective, estimated cost $1 million (Brammeier et al. 2007) Acoustic field not highly concentrated, effective for blocking river intakes Uncertainty in optimal operating range to maximize effectiveness (life stage) (MDNR et al. 2004) Bio-acoustic Fish Fence Combined concentrated acoustic field and bubble curtain Electromagnetic/pneumonic sound transducer coupled to bubble sheet generator Multi-faceted carp barrier 90% effective; cost: $1.2 million (MDNR et al. 2004) Hybrid Systems System incorporating SPA with bubble curtain being developed Allow direct modification of signal to target Asian carp (MDNR et al. 2004)

49 Figure: SPA system (MDNR et al. 2004)

50 Figure: Bio-acoustic Fish Fence System
(MDNR et al. 2004)

51 Physical Methods cont’d
Modified Structural Operations Modified Lock Operations 100% certainty that carp have not passed electro-barrier not attained Modifying lock operations adjacent to Lake Michigan as prevention Proposed actions include: no action, close every week, close one week/month, close every other week Effectiveness not known, impact to shipping may be significant (Asian Carp Working Group 2010) Modified Bank Fortifications Des Plaines River and I&M Canal directly adjacent to CSSC, overland of waters between water bodies during storm events Propose modified bank fortifications to stop water body transfer Concrete barriers Chain link fencing High priority flooding zones identified for these structures, ~13.5 mile stretch of CSSC High cost: $13,200,000; permanent concrete structures effective in stopping overland flow, chain link fence uncertain (juveniles) (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)

52 Figure: Des Plaines River overflow above dispersal barriers
(USACE 2010)

53 Biological/Chemical Controls
Rotenone, non-discriminate, large scale Current technology not yet developed carp-specific chemical (Asian Carp Working Group 2010) Biological Relatively unknown, currently being researched Research: effect of variable acoustics, electric fields, and light modifications Goal to disrupt spawning activities (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)

54 Social Controls Prevent Direct/Indirect Introduction Market controls
Prohibit live sale (Lacey Act) Educational Programs Social awareness (Stop Asian Carp!) Market controls Open American fishing markets to carp, commodity product Create incentives for harvest (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)


56 Conclusions Will they make it into the Great Lakes?
YES Economic interest, political turmoil Proximity to Great Lakes High level of uncertainty Will they survive in the Lakes? Eutrophic Conditions of bays, inlets, slack water areas, and stream entry points Life histrory of carp Mobility, omniplanktivores, adaptability Whole lake model might not be applicable. Cooke et al paper plankton densities.

57 Conclusions Will they get to Lake Champlain?
Colonization is likely but… Geographic expanse Effectiveness of preventative measures

58 Missisquoi Bay St. Albans Bay
Burlington Bay Shelburne Bay They are known to eat blue green algae

59 Conclusions Impacts Serious Ecological Impacts Economic Impacts
Disrupt natural food web (Cooke et al. 2009… already detrimental to native planktivores in the Mississippi) No natural predators Ability to shift diet with plankton composition Rapid Expansion Large size and rapid growth rate Economic Impacts Damage Fisheries Mississippi River and Missouri River Systems have lost numerous fisheries Social Impacts Loss of recreational value of waterways Loss of historic, traditional fishing areas Aesthetic value

60 PREVENTION is the best method!
Recommendations PREVENTION is the best method!

61 Recommendations Strengthen current preventative measures
Increase public awareness! Establish viable market for Asian carp Fund habitat suitability research Complete assessment of Great Lakes vulnerability

62 Recommendations cont’d Preventive Measures
Complete construction of Barrier II-B by October 2010, upgrade Barrier I to permanent status Research techniques to enhance eDNA techniques, increase capacity Strengthen current Rapid Response Programs - Heightened monitoring, contingency plans Continue target electro fishing/netting Implement bank fortifications to separate CSSC, Des Plaines River, and I&M Canal Modify lock operations on a weekly basis (preventative) Utilize integrated alternative prevention measures at channel openings upstream of electric barriers (preventative) Hybrid acoustic/bubble systems, small scale physical barriers

63 PREVENTION is the best method!!!!
Questions? Players: Invasive Silver and Bigheaded carp Problem: They possess the ability to disrupt the natural food web and cause significant social, economic, and ecological impacts Goal: Investigate likelihood that the asian carp will actually spread and have serious impacts What we conclude: Yes, the carp will reach the Great Lakes and possibly Lake Champlain Too many uncertainties to be sure Recommendations: PREVENTION is the best method!!!!

64 Citations Chen, P., Wiley, E. O., Mcnyset K. M. (2007). Ecological niche modeling as a predictive tool: silver and bighead carps in North America. Biol Invasions, 9(43-51), DOI: /s x Cooke, L.S., Hill, R.W., & Meyer, P. K. (2009) Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmychthys nobilis) growth and zooplankton species composition Hydrobiologia, 625( ). doi: /s y 1Fuller, P. (2009). From NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Bighead Carp. USGS. Retrieved from 2Fuller, P. (2009). From NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Silver Carp. USGS. Retrieved from Huang, D., Liu, J., & Hu, C. (2001). Fish resources in Chinese reservoirs and their utilisation. Abstract retrieved from Kolar, C. S., Chapman, D.C., Courteney, Jr. W. R., Housel, C. M., Williams, J. D., & Jennings, D. P. (2005). Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae) ― A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.

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