2The Invasion of the Asian Carp: Silver and Bigheaded Carp in our Waters Jesse Zastrow, Jerome Barner,Zach Fournier, Eamon HarrityApril 14, 2010ENSC 202Professor: Stephanie Hurley
3Hype U.S. Supreme Court may rule on Asian carp case Environmental groups say plan to fight Asian carp not enoughGranholm calls Obama carp plan weakFeds unveil $78.5M effort to blunt Lakes migration of carpFrom The Detroit News: http://www.detnews.com/article/ /METRO/ #ixzz0kTtbznvxA lot of media attention… big wigs involved, politicians and money also very much involved.
4What is the real deal?With all the media hype we wanted to do some investigation of our own to better understand the real situation and if champlain is at any risk“Asian carp are like cancer cells," said Cameron Davis, senior adviser with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "They can grow and spread very, very quickly and overtake other healthy living organisms."-Belkin, D Wall Street Journal Nov
5Problem StatementThe Silver and Bigheaded carp are invasive planktivorous fish that could have serious social, economic and ecological impacts on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
6Basic Outline Introduction Findings Conclusions and Recommendations Goals and ObjectivesFindingsThe CarpThe Great lake and Lake ChamplainVectors of introductionPreventative MeasuresConclusions and Recommendations
7Goals Assess the risk posed by Asian carp to Great Lakes How likely is it that they will make it to and survive in the Great Lakes?Will they be able to migrate within the lakes?What kind of impacts could they have on the lake system?Ultimately, what is the likelihood that the carp will make it to Lake Champlain and what impacts could they have here.
8Objectives Investigate the current status of the carp Distribution, impacts on inhabited areasDescribe the life history of the carpFamiliarize ourselves with the characteristics of the lakesAssess possible vectors and pathways into and between the lakesExplore existing and potential prevention practicesInvestigate potential economic, social and ecological impacts of these fish (conclusions)
10Asian Carp Images from Kolar, 2005. Figure 1: Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)Figure 2: Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)Images from Kolar, 2005.
11Asian CarpBrought in to improve water quality and promote production in aquaculture ponds, reservoirs, and improve conditions in sewage pools primarily in Arkansas.First introduced to US from private fish farmers in Arkansas (1972 – bighead, 1973 – Silver) for aquaculture pond clean up, later used in federal, state, and private facilities then municipal water management ponds.Silver Carp have been recorded in 12 states, and Bighead at least 18 states.Introduced to waters from dumping of bait fish, flooding of stocked ponds, illegal stocking of reservoirs & lakes etc.
12Asian Carp Introduction cont’d Figure 4: Range of Bighead Carp in the US, as of August, 2009 (1Fuller, 2009).Figure 3: Range of Silver Carp in the US, as of August, 2009 (2Fuller, 2009).
13Asian Carp Native Distribution Figure 5: Native range of Bighead Carp, mainly large rivers and lakes of southeastern Asia; eastern China, eastern Siberia, and the extreme northern range of North Korea (Kolar et al., 2005)Figure 6: Native range of Silver Carp, mainly large rivers and lakes of eastern China and eastern Russia that run into the Pacific Ocean (Kolar et al., 2005)Occur in freshwaters including rivers and lakes in their native China.Needs fast-moving water (rivers) for spawning, otherwise prefers slow-moving waters such as lakes, ponds, and flooded backwaters
14Asian CarpHabitatHas been introduced to reservoirs, canals, man-made ponds and lakes, etc. where they do well.Spawn in spring, tributary use highest in winter according to a study by DCC on the Missouri River.Table 1: Data collected in the US in 2004, depicting rivers and habitats of juvenille Bighead and Silver Carp. Table from (Kolar et al., 2005), author cited contacts as the field biologists who provided the data.
15Asian Carp Temperature Very temperature tolerant; Adult Asian Carp have been shown to survive in temperatures ranging 2°C to 40°C.A variety of sources document varying optimal temperature ranges, most fall between 20 and 30°C.Temperature fluctuations not necessary for reproduction although it is characteristic of their native range.Reproductive BiologyFecundity increases with body size and weight.Many ranges of Asian Carp reproduction success, from 280,000 to 1,860,800 per Bighead female and 145,000 to 5,000,000 per Silver female, varying from location and study.Fecundity of Bighead Carp from the lower Missouri River collected in ranged from 11,588 to 769,964, with an average of 226,213 eggs (Schrank and Guy 2002).A study of 6 Silver Carp in the Mississippi River in 2003 showed a range of total fecundity as 57,283 to 328,538 eggs.
16Asian Carp Feeding Habits Table 2: Comparison of feeding habits between Bighead carp and Silver carp (Kolar et al., 2005).
17Asian Carp They consume 7-14% of their body weight in food. FeedingThey consume 7-14% of their body weight in food.Bighead carp has been shown to prefer Daphnia (Cooke et al., 2009).Asian carp have been shown to consume different ratios of zooplankton and phytoplankton based on life stage and abundance of plankton.Bighead carp revert to phytoplankton when zooplankton levels are low, mainly blue-green algae, diatoms, and green algae.Extremely adaptive feeding habits, change natural zooplankton and phytoplankton composition and feed on detritus if necessary.Bighead carp primarily zooplanktivores, less specialized than Silver.Adult Silver carp primarily feed on phytoplankton, larvae on zooplankton. Gill rakers capable of straining phytoplankton down to 4 um in diameter (Chen et al., 2007).
18Asian Carp Outcompeting native fish for food Potential Impact on Recreation/Fishing IndustryOutcompeting native fish for foodConcern for native filter feeding fish like Paddlefish, Bigmouth Buffalo, and Gizzard Shad, as well as many other fish with overlapping food requirements.Fishermen overwhelmed with amount of carp, cannot catch anything else.Carp jumping, hitting fishermen, boaters, tubers, etc. DANGEROUS!The Great Lakes contribute $7 billion to the economy through commercial and sport • fishing, and an additional $8 to $10 billion through recreational boating (FWS 2009).Jumping Carp
19Physical Characteristics of each Lake of Concern Lake CharacteristicsLake ChamplainLake MichiganLake ErieLength120 miles307 miles241 milesWidth12 miles118 miles57 milesAverage Depth64 feet279 feet62 feetDrainage Area8,234 square miles45,000 square miles30,140 square milesSurface Area435 square miles22,300 square miles9,910 square milesWe focused on these lakes because they seem to be the most likely for invasion
20Ecological Status of the Great Lakes Region The Great Lakes ecosystem is the largest freshwater ecosystem in the world.The Great Lakes ecosystem is an extensive watershed (288,000 square miles) with 5,000 tributaries and 9,000 miles of shoreline.Important sport fish in the ecosystem include: Lake trout, Brook trout, Lake sturgeon, Yellow perch, Lake whitefish, Muskellunge, Walleye , Chinook salmon, and Coho salmonUS FWS Midwest Region Hot topic: Asian Carp
21Ecological Status of the Great Lakes Region Significantly degraded over the past few decades due to human use and influx of invasive speciesInvasive plants, fish, invertebrates, and macrophytes have devastated native population180+ Invasive species currently inhabiting the Lakes (Modley, 2010)Asian Carp- another potential stressor to the aquatic ecosystemIn the Mississippi River System they outcompete the native fish such as bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad, and paddlefish for the phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass
22General aquatic food web may be used to predict the potential impacts of the Asian carp on the ecological system of the lakes.
23Eutrophic Conditions of Lake Michigan and Lake Erie Values ranging from indicate oligotrophic conditions; values from indicate mesotrophic conditions (shaded area); values above 1.0 indicate eutrophic conditions. Data points represent average of triplicate samples taken at each sampling site. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006)
24Zooplankton Densities in Lake Champlain Missisquoi BaySt. Albans BayCumberland BayThe net zooplankton density of the thousands of organisms per square meter in Lake Champlain sampled throughout the 15 stations.
25Potential Pathways Chicago Shipping and Sanitary Canal Des Plaines RiverOverland floodingOther canalsHuman facilitated introduction(Modley, Personal communication 2010; Daniels, R 2000; Hill, W 2008; FWS 2010; Cooke et al. 2009)
26Chicago Shipping and Sanitary Canal A stretch of man made canal
27CSSCA man-made canal, constructed in the early 1900s as a sewage drainIt is the only shipping link between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River SystemCurrently it is 28 miles long 202 ft wide and 22 ft deep.28 miles long 202 ft wide, 22 ft deep.
28Des Plaines RiverFlooding greatly increases this fish’s mobility and may pose as a serious complication to any prevention measureModley 2010, FWS 2010Flooding could carry carp over land past the electronic barrier and render the installment useless
29OOPS! Accidental Introduction The Great Lakes have around 184 known invasive species and quite a few have been traced back to the ballast waters of cargo ships.Rainbow Smelt, Fishhook water Flea, Fourspine SticklebackGrass carp still shipped around the country for plankton control in aquaculture pondsFor all your carp stocking needs!Looking at the literature, it seems the poly-carp stocking practice has declined significantly since the early 2000’s50,000 invasives in the USA 65% of invasives in the laurentian lakes introduced via ballast waters.Ricciardi, 2006; u/~agexten/aquaculture/Pondweed.pdf
30Human Facilitated Introduction Bait FishAwaiting response from local baitfish shopsAlewife believed to have been introduced as a bait fish on accidentCulinary marketThey are a staple food in their native range and are slowly gaining popularity hereBigheaded carp is shipped live as a specialty food itemAs small markets develop so does the movement of this carp“We shouldn't be trying to eradicate it; it's too late for that. We should be eating it.” Steve Mcnitt- Schafer Fisheries in Thomson, Ill (Los Angeles Times, Jan )
31New York State Canal System A valid point to bring up is the separation of the lakes
32NYSCS524 miles of canals connecting Lake Erie to the finger lakes, Hudson River and Lake Champlain12 ft deep in most placesWarm, nutrient rich waters that support thriving sport fish populationsSmall and Large mouth bass, walleye, panfish northern pike, blueback herring and coho salmon
33Champlain Canal 60 miles of shallow nutrient rich water As many as 12 invasive species including zebra mussels and white perch thought to have arrived through this canalShipping traffic much lower than in the past, mostly for recreational use nowModley (2010) believes that the carp would be more than capable of migrating up this canal into Lake ChamplainChambly canal connects lake champ with
34Asian Carp Preventative Measures Overview Current Preventative MeasuresCSSC Underwater Electric BarriereDNA SamplingRapid Response PlanElectrofishing/Netting/Targeted RemovalAlternative Preventative MeasuresPhysical ControlsBiological/Chemical ControlsSocial Controls
36CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier Only dispersal barrier between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River basinStructure: - steel cables with electrodes on either endnon-lethal, gradual electric field created underwateruncomfortable for fish to pass (USACE 2007)
37CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier Cont’d Two barrier systemBarrier I (demonstration)1 Volts/Inch, pulsing 5Hz every 4msNANPCA, completed April 2002,temporaryStretches 54 feet of canal (USACE 2009)Barrier IIBarrier II-A2 Volts/Inch, pulsing 15 Hzevery 6.5 ms1300ft downstream Barrier ICompleted April 2008,permanent (Asian Carp WorkingGroup 2010)Barrier II-BSame operating capacity as II-A800 ft downstream Barrier ISlated for completion October 2010 (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)
38CSSC Underwater Electric Barrier Cont’d Effectiveness Cost Time-ScaleDependant upon: Barrier I : $4 million (2007) completed April 2002Current velocity Barrier II : project ceiling II A: completed 04/2008Water Temperature $16 million (2007) IIB: slated completionConductivity (USACE 2009) 08/2010( Dettmers et al. 2009)Carp life stage (juvenile?)(Brammeier et al 2008)Electric Barrier shownto be ~ 90-99% effective( Brammeir et al. 2008)- MDNR study in 2004 foundelectric barrier + acoustic bubblerto be ~ 83 % effectiveHIGH UNCERTAINTY
39eDNA SamplingDeveloped at U. of Notre Dame, current method of Carp detection (USACE 2009)Examines local water samples for traces of carp DNAMucoidal secretionsFeces / urineTissuePresence/Non-presence determined by identified genetic marker (Lodge 2010)Effectiveness:Greater ease of detectionDoes not account for specimen life history traits, quantity present, or exact location (Lodge 2010)Cost:Current total: $2,600,000Future Estimates: $940,000(Asian Carp Working Group 2010)Figure: Two sites depicting positive detections, Site A is the Brandon Road pool, Site B is near power plant in Dresden Island pool
40Rapid Response Program “We believe it is still critical to support and defend the electric barrier while it is down for maintenance,” said IDNR Assistant Director John Rogner. “The barrier remains our most effective weapon against this very aggressive invasive species” (IDNR 2009).
41Rapid Response Program cont’d Maintenance on barriers required every 4-6 months, barriers are turned off (USFWS 2010)Rapid Response Program implemented during these maintenance periodsProgram consists of dumping piscicide into CSSC to eliminate all biota (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)Rotenone chosen by EPA as most effective means to eliminate Asian carpDerived from roots of tropical/sub tropical plantsInhibits biochemical processes at cellular levelNo fish is immune => death (US EPA 2007)
42Rapid Response Program cont’d Effectiveness:Studies show 65-95% effective in killing target species (Brammeier et al. 2008)Rapid Response implemented in December 2009 in CSSC yielded over 90 tons of dead fish, including one Asian carp (Hood 2009)CostCost of Rotenone very high, $1 / acre footDecember 2009 application: 2,200 gallons dumped into CSSC over three day = $3 million (Hood 2009)TimescaleRotenone degrades rapidly , ceasing to affect fish after a few hours, becomes non-toxic after 4-6 weeks(US EPA 2008)Application of Rotenone in accordance with routine maintenance schedules
43Electro-fishing/ Netting/ Targeted Removal In accordance with Asian Carp Working Group Control Strategy Framework (Feb. 2010)Utilizes current eDNA sampling methodsData reveals carp hotspots above barrier system where carp have been positively identifiedWarm water dischargesWastewater treatment plant outfallsTail waters of locks and damsMarina basinsBarge SlipsOther slack water areasWithin target areas, fish are concentrated to a confined area (electro-fishing, acoustics, nets)Removed via application of Rotenone (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)
44Electro-fishing/ Netting/ Targeted Removal Effectiveness:Proven to be effective method to eradicate fish in given areaControl study by IDNR downstream of barrier system yielded Asian carp in eDNA identified area (MDNR et al. 2010)Likelihood of success directly linked to expedience of eDNA sample analyzation, fish are mobileSpeeding up eDNA methods critical to effectvie removal!CostEstimated cost for implementation of this program (~April 2010) : $2 million (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)
46Physical Methods Physical Barriers Vertical Drop Barrier Hydraulic drop greater than carp leaping ability (~10 ft)Dams, feasible in small tributaries => % effective (Brammeier et al. 2007)Rotating Drum ScreensDrums set in-stream on a cableContinually turn, allow passage of fine debris but not carp ( MDNR et al. 2004)Small scale, % effectiveFloating CurtainsFloating curtain attached to pilings across water bodyAllows fine debris to pass; small scale => % effective (MDNR et al. 2004)High Velocity StructuresConcentrated areas of high velocityFlat aprons in dam spillways, velocity faster than carp swimming speedHighly effective, small scale (MDNR et al. 2004)
47Physical Methods cont’d Bubble CurtainsPerforated tube laid across bottom of channel,compressed air pumped through creating wall of bubbles50-95% effectiveConstruction and operating costs: $0.5-1 millionStrobe LightsMost effective when utilized in concert with other deterrents(bubble curtains, acoustic deflections)60-95% effective in eel study(MDNR et al. 2004)Cost: $0.5-1 million, but only to be used atchannel entrances (Brammeier et al. 2007)(MDNR et al. 2004)
48Physical Methods cont’d Acoustic DeterrentsSound Projector ArrayElectronic signal generator, several powerful amplifiers, under water array of sound projectors (MDNR et al. 2004)80% effective, estimated cost $1 million (Brammeier et al. 2007)Acoustic field not highly concentrated, effective for blocking river intakesUncertainty in optimal operating range to maximize effectiveness (life stage) (MDNR et al. 2004)Bio-acoustic Fish FenceCombined concentrated acoustic field and bubble curtainElectromagnetic/pneumonic sound transducer coupled to bubble sheet generatorMulti-faceted carp barrier90% effective; cost: $1.2 million (MDNR et al. 2004)Hybrid SystemsSystem incorporating SPA with bubble curtain being developedAllow direct modification of signal to target Asian carp (MDNR et al. 2004)
50Figure: Bio-acoustic Fish Fence System (MDNR et al. 2004)
51Physical Methods cont’d Modified Structural OperationsModified Lock Operations100% certainty that carp have not passedelectro-barrier not attainedModifying lock operations adjacent toLake Michigan as preventionProposed actions include: no action, close every week, close one week/month, close every other weekEffectiveness not known, impact to shipping may be significant (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)Modified Bank FortificationsDes Plaines River and I&M Canal directly adjacent to CSSC, overland of waters between water bodies during storm eventsPropose modified bank fortifications to stop water body transferConcrete barriersChain link fencingHigh priority flooding zones identified for these structures, ~13.5 mile stretch of CSSCHigh cost: $13,200,000; permanent concrete structures effective in stopping overland flow, chain link fence uncertain (juveniles) (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)
52Figure: Des Plaines River overflow above dispersal barriers (USACE 2010)
53Biological/Chemical Controls Rotenone, non-discriminate, large scaleCurrent technology not yet developed carp-specific chemical (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)BiologicalRelatively unknown, currently being researchedResearch: effect of variable acoustics, electric fields, and light modificationsGoal to disrupt spawning activities (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)
54Social Controls Prevent Direct/Indirect Introduction Market controls Prohibit live sale (Lacey Act)Educational ProgramsSocial awareness (Stop Asian Carp!)Market controlsOpen American fishing markets to carp, commodity productCreate incentives for harvest (Asian Carp Working Group 2010)
56Conclusions Will they make it into the Great Lakes? YESEconomic interest, political turmoilProximity to Great LakesHigh level of uncertaintyWill they survive in the Lakes?Eutrophic Conditions of bays, inlets, slack water areas, and stream entry pointsLife histrory of carpMobility, omniplanktivores, adaptabilityWhole lake model might not be applicable.Cooke et al paper plankton densities.
57Conclusions Will they get to Lake Champlain? Colonization is likely but…Geographic expanseEffectiveness of preventative measures
58http://www.lcbp.org/PDFs/SOL2008-web.pdf Missisquoi Bay St. Albans Bay Burlington BayShelburne BayThey are known to eat blue green algae
59Conclusions Impacts Serious Ecological Impacts Economic Impacts Disrupt natural food web (Cooke et al. 2009… already detrimental to native planktivores in the Mississippi)No natural predatorsAbility to shift diet with plankton compositionRapid ExpansionLarge size and rapid growth rateEconomic ImpactsDamage FisheriesMississippi River and Missouri River Systems have lost numerous fisheriesSocial ImpactsLoss of recreational value of waterwaysLoss of historic, traditional fishing areasAesthetic value
60PREVENTION is the best method! RecommendationsPREVENTION is the best method!
61Recommendations Strengthen current preventative measures Increase public awareness!Establish viable market for Asian carpFund habitat suitability researchComplete assessmentof Great Lakesvulnerability
62Recommendations cont’d Preventive Measures Complete construction of Barrier II-B by October 2010, upgrade Barrier I to permanent statusResearch techniques to enhance eDNA techniques, increase capacityStrengthen current Rapid Response Programs- Heightened monitoring, contingency plansContinue target electro fishing/nettingImplement bank fortifications to separate CSSC, Des Plaines River, and I&M CanalModify lock operations on a weekly basis (preventative)Utilize integrated alternative prevention measures at channel openings upstream of electric barriers (preventative)Hybrid acoustic/bubble systems, small scale physical barriers
63PREVENTION is the best method!!!! Questions?Players: Invasive Silver and Bigheaded carpProblem: They possess the ability to disrupt the natural food web and cause significant social, economic, and ecological impactsGoal: Investigate likelihood that theasian carp will actually spread andhave serious impactsWhat we conclude: Yes, the carpwill reach the Great Lakes andpossibly Lake ChamplainToo many uncertainties to be sureRecommendations:PREVENTION is the best method!!!!
64CitationsChen, P., Wiley, E. O., Mcnyset K. M. (2007). Ecological niche modeling as a predictive tool: silver and bighead carps in North America. Biol Invasions, 9(43-51), DOI: /s xCooke, L.S., Hill, R.W., & Meyer, P. K. (2009) Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmychthys nobilis) growth and zooplankton species composition Hydrobiologia, 625( ). doi: /s y1Fuller, P. (2009). From NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Bighead Carp. USGS. Retrieved from2Fuller, P. (2009). From NAS – Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Silver Carp. USGS. Retrieved fromHuang, D., Liu, J., & Hu, C. (2001). Fish resources in Chinese reservoirs and their utilisation. Abstract retrieved fromKolar, C. S., Chapman, D.C., Courteney, Jr. W. R., Housel, C. M., Williams, J. D., & Jennings, D. P. (2005). Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae) ― A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.