Presentation on theme: "Precipitation-Strengthened Al-Sc-Ti Alloys"— Presentation transcript:
1Precipitation-Strengthened Al-Sc-Ti Alloys Marsha van DalenDavid Dunand, David SeidmanNorthwestern UniversityDept. of Materials Science and EngineeringEvanston, ILThis study is supported by the US Department of Energy through grant DE-FG02-98ER45721.
2Introduction: Al-Sc alloys Most current Al alloys are limited to low temperature usage (<200ºC ) because of the dissolution and/or coarsening of their precipitates.1Al-Sc alloys, however, form nanosize, coherent Al3Sc (L12 structure) precipitates which exhibit low coarsening rates at 300ºC-350ºC.Significant improvement in creep resistance over pure Al.2L12 StructureAl atomsSc atoms1Polmear IJ, Light Alloys: Metallurgy of the Light Metals, Edward Arnold 1981.2Marquis EA, Seidman DN, Dunand DC, Acta Mat. 50 (2002)
3Al-Sc Phase Diagram Sc has limited solid solubility in -Al. Sc is most potent strengthener on a per atom basis.More potent than Zn, Cu, Mg, Li and Si.2-Al + Al3Sc1Hyland, Met. Trans. A, 23A (1992)2Drits M Ye., Ber LB, Bykov YG, Toropova LS, Anastas'eva GK, Phys. Met. Metall., 57 (6) (1984)
4Ternary alloying elements Ternary additions can alter the properties of Al-Sc alloys.Mg for solid solution strengtheningZr partitions to Al3Sc phaseDiffusivity of Zr is over 4 orders of magnitude smaller than Sc1 at 300ºC which leads to a lower coarsening rate compared to the binary.Reduces the lattice parameter mismatch2 between Al and Al3Sc which also leads to a lower coarsening rate.Segregates to the -Al/Al3Sc heterophase interface.31Fujikawa SI, Defect and Diff. For (1997)2Harada & Dunand, Mater. Sci. & Eng. A, (2002)3C.B. Fuller, J.L. Murray, D.N. Seidman, to be submitted for publication, 2005.
5Al-Sc-Ti alloys Ti as a ternary alloying element: Low diffusion rate in AlSmaller than Zr by factor of ca. 20 at 300ºC1High solubility in Al3Sc2Replacing up to 50% of Sc atoms.Ti reduces the lattice parameter mismatch between -Al and Al3(Sc,Ti) precipitates.Has the potential of reducing the coarsening rate since the diffusion and elastic strain energy are reduced.1Bergner D, Van Chi N, Wissens. Zeit. der Padag. Hochschule “N.K. Krupskaja” Halle XV (1977), Heft 3.2Harada & Dunand, Mater. Sci. & Eng. A, (2002)
6Al-Sc-Ti Ternary Phase Diagram Composition analyzed:Al-0.06at.%Sc-0.06at.%TiThe composition is in the single phase -Al region during homogenization at 640ºC.It is in the three phase region during aging at 300ºC and 350ºC.No Al3Ti precipitates were observed.350ºC300ºCJ.L. Murray, ALCOA
7Vickers Microhardness 1 hr1 day1 weekSc is more effective strengthener at room temperature than Ti.Even the addition of at.% Zr increases the hardness to several hundred MPa over the alloy with Ti additions.E.A. Marquis, D.N. Seidman, D.C. Dunand, Acta Mater. 51 (2003)E.A. Marquis, D.N. Seidman, Acta Mater. 49 (2001)C.B. Fuller, PhD Thesis, Northwestern University, 2003
8Vickers Microhardness 1 hr1 day1 weekSignificant hardening at 300ºCOveraging occurs after 16 days.Decrease in hardness with increasing temperature due to coarsening of ppts.No significant hardening above 320ºCDue to heterogeneous nucleation at higher temperaturesStill significant hardening for samples aged at 300ºC first before aging at higher temperatures likely due to diffusion of Ti into the precipitates.Triple Aged Sample: 300ºC/24 h - 400ºC/10 days - 450ºC/48 hDouble Aged Sample: 300ºC/24 h - 425ºC/48 h
9Precipitate Morphology Dark Field TEM images showing changes in precipitate size, shape and distribution with aging treatment:(a) 300C / 64 days  zone axis;(b) 320C / 1 day.  zone axis;(c) 330C / 1 day.  zone axis;(d) 300C / 1 day, 400C / 10 days, 450C / 2 days,  zone axis.
10Coherency of Al3Sc Precipitates The Al3Sc precipitates remain coherent up to temperatures of 320ºCThe precipitates display Ashby-Brown strain contrast typical of coherent precipitates.Consistent with binary alloys in which precipitates remained coherent up to 40 nm in diameter.1BF TEM image of Al-0.06Sc-0.06Ti aged at 320ºC for 24 h.1E.A. Marquis, D.N. Seidman, Acta Mater. 49 (2001)
11Coarsening ModelsLSW Coarsening Theory predicts for binary alloys for steady-state:1,2Average precipitate radius, <R> t1/3Precipitate Number Density t-1Supersaturation t-1/3For ternary alloys the time exponents are the same.3Assumptions:Negligible volume fraction.No elastic interaction among ppts.Ppts. have spherical shape and are randomly distributed.Only takes into account diffusion - not coagulation or coalescence of precipitates.Composition of precipitates and matrix is in quasi-steady-state, i.e. dC/dt0Off-diagonal terms of diffusion tensor neglected.1Lifshitz IM, Slyozov VV, J Phys. Chem. Solids, 19 (1961)2Wagner C, Z. Elektrochem, 65, (1961)3Kuehmann CJ, Voorhees PW, Met. Mat. Trans. A, 27A (1996)
12Precipitate Size vs. Time at 300ºC Average precipitate radius only increases slightly with time for aging at 300ºC.Much smaller time exponent than predicted.Similar trends observed for Al-Sc-Zr alloys.1Indicates coarsening is occurring more slowly than predicted by coarsening models.1C.B. Fuller, PhD Thesis, Northwestern University, 2003
143DAP Microscopy Results 3D reconstruction showing Al3Sc precipitate in sample aged for 96 h. at 300ºC~125,000 atomsSc atomsTi atomsAl atoms omitted for clarity.
153DAP Microscopy Results: Ti Concentration vs. Time Proximity Histogram of Ti for various aging timesTi concentration in Al3Sc precipitates increases with time at 300ºC.Only small amount incorporated into the ppts. since the diffusion of Ti in Al is slow.Apparent interfacial segregation at longer aging times.Similar to results obtained for Al-Sc-Zr alloys.Based on 9 at.% Sc isosurface.matrixprecipitate
163DAP Microscopy Results: Concentration vs. Time Sc concentration in precipitate phase decreases over time.Sc atoms replaced by Ti atoms.System thus not in equilibrium.
17Ti concentration in matrix Decreases slowly with aging time.Far from equilibrium value of 0.01 at.%At 0.04 at.% after 64 days.Concentration changing significantly thus not in equilibrium.
18High Temperature Coarsening Increased Ti in precipitate after double aging24 hrs. at 300ºC120 hrs. at 400ºCDiffusion distance for 64 days at 300ºC: 3 nmDiffusion distance for double aging treatment: 48 nmData for Double Aging Taken with Imago Scienentific LEAP microscope.
19Trends in Segregation of Ti to Interface Segregation increases with aging time at 300ºCDue to slower diffusion in ppt.Interfacial energy is reduced.Less segregation than ZrPossibly because Ti is more effective at reducing the lattice parameter.Less segregated after aging at 400ºCLower mismatch at higher temperatures.
20Room Temperature Strengthening Mechanisms Orowan looping seems to be the dominant mechanism.All other mechanisms lead to stresses that would be much too high at the radii measured.order strengtheningmodulus mismatchcoherency strainsFairly good agreement with previous studies.1,2Calculated Orowan Stress1Marquis EA, Seidman DN, Dunand DC, Acta Mat. 50 (2002)2Fuller, CB, DN Seidman, DC Dunand, Acta Materialia 51 (2003)
21Creep of Al-0.06 Sc-0.06 Ti at 300ºCHigh apparent stress exponents indicative of threshold stress.For radii in the range nm, creep resistance and threshold stress increases with increasing precipitate size.At largest average precipitate radius (16.9 nm), however, the interprecipitate distance is so large that the creep resistance has decreased.
22Normalized Threshold Stress Most climb related models predict normalized threshold stress to be constant with radius.Increase of norm with increasing radius due to lattice and elastic misfits.1Consistent with Al-Sc, Al-Sc-Mg2 and Al-Sc-Zr3Slight decrease in creep properties for the Al-Sc-Ti alloy due to lower lattice misfit.norm = th/or1Marquis EA, Dunand DC, Scripta Mat. 47 (2002)2Marquis EA, Seidman DN, Dunand DC, Acta Mater. 51 (2003)3Fuller CB, Seidman DN, Dunand DC, Acta Mater. 51 (2003)
23ConclusionsTi does not provide as much of a strengthening effect at room temperature as an equal addition of Sc or Zr to pure aluminum.Ti partitions to the precipitates, although this is a very slow kinetic process and at the aging times analyzed, most of the Ti remains in solid solution in the matrix.The coarsening of the precipitates does not agree exactly with coarsening model - slower than predicted.A creep threshold stress is found at 300ºC, which when normalized by the Orowan stress, increases with increasing precipitate radius. Qualitative agreement is found with a model considering climb with elastic interactions with the precipitate.