Tap the space bar to advance. 2 Looking Ahead We are about ready to wrap up this course for you. In this final part, we will look at sample applications of the CPC Way to help you use it in the most effective way possible.
Tap the space bar to advance. 5 Applications of the CPC Way Reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic are the three R's of learning. To these three, two other areas should be added: science and foreign languages. An educated person should be skilled in at least these five areas. Of these five, reading and writing were discussed in earlier chapters, so the discussion of these topics will be limited. The other areas will be discussed in greater detail.
Tap the space bar to advance. 6 Applications of the CPC Way This chapter will cover the application of the CPC Way of improving achievement to the following subjects: I.READING II.WRITING III.MATHMATICS IV.SCIENCE V.FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Tap the space bar to advance. 7 I. READING Review Chapter 5, especially the sections on textbook format, correct reading, and vocabulary building. For the best results in reading most materials, follow the suggestions given in the next set of slides.
Tap the space bar to advance. 8 A. Meaning. Read for meaning, not for pronunciation. Begin by reading the title of the chapter and the introduction or summary of the chapter. B. Amount. Read a section or two at one time. Begin with the section headings and then go on to the paragraphs. C. Underline. Reread and underline the subjects of the paragraphs and of the important sentences. Reduce the amount you read before underlining if the number of words that you have underlined is more than your CPC score. I. READING
Tap the space bar to advance. 9 C. New words. Circle new words and write their definitions. D. Understanding. Place question marks at points that you do not understand. Ask the teacher to explain these points to you. E. Outline. Prepare a chunking study outline. F. Use the outline with the CPC Way of learning. I. READING
Tap the space bar to advance. 10 II. WRITING Good writing depends on a knowledge of grammar and spelling, and the quality of the contents depends on reading.
Tap the space bar to advance. 11 II. WRITING A. Grammar Review your grammar lessons by using the CPC Way. Pay particular attention to troublesome parts. 1. Comma. One common fault in students papers is the use of commas. Commas should be used before coordinate clauses joined by but (e.g., This is a fork, but that is a spoon.), and, neither, or, for. One way of chunking these words to remember them is to use the acronym ban of to tie it to the subject matter, think of the phrase ban of the comma.
Tap the space bar to advance. 12 2. Noun/verb. Another common student problem lies in the agreement between a noun and its verb. Errors are likely to occur when the noun does not follow the normal rules of forming plurals; that is, if the plural does not have an s or es ending. Two such words are datum (data is the plural) and basis (bases is the plural). II. WRITING A. Grammar
Tap the space bar to advance. 13 One way of checking the agreement of verb and noun is to ask this question about the verb, ”Who or what?" Once the noun is located by asking who or what, then you can determine whether the verb should be singular or plural (e.g., The number of things found in the boxes was small. Here "who or what" was found? It was "number" of things; hence, the correct verb is was and not were because "number" is singular.) II. WRITING A. Grammar
Tap the space bar to advance. 14 Spelling is one of the most common errors found in student reports.How would you feel if your teacher did not spell correctly? Your opinion of the person as a professional would drop. How do you think a company would feel if someone applied for a job by submitting an application that was full of spelling errors? The applicant's chances of getting the job would not be very good. What about you? Are you a good speller? II. WRITING B.Spelling
Tap the space bar to advance. 15 In the next slide you will hear some commonly misspelled words. Get ready with pen and pencil. After the test, check your spellings by comparing them with the words shown in the next slide. If you misspelled any of the words, look at the CPC Way of spelling these words. Once you go through these spelling steps, you will make few, if any, errors. II. WRITING B.Spelling
Tap the space bar to advance. 16 Listen and Write! Each word will be repeated twice. First with a sentence and then again alone. Tap the space bar to advance from word to word. The slide with automatically advance when the test is over. Use the audio on the next slide to adjust the volume on your computer.
Tap the space bar to advance. 17 Adjust Volume Levels Tap the space bar to hear audio and adjust the volume on your computer. Tap the space bar again to begin the test.
Tap the space bar to advance. 18 Check your spelling believe together committee therefore separate pleasant government truly description surprise indefinite develop
Tap the space bar to advance. 19 CPC Way of Learning Applied to Spelling be li eve, beli eve, believe to get her, toget her, together com mit tee, commit tee, committee there for e, therefore e, therefore se pa rate, sepa rate, separate plea s ant, pleas ant, pleasant gover n ment, govern ment, government tru ly, truly des crip tion, descrip tion, description surp rise, surprise in defi nite, indefi nite, indefinite d eve lop, deve lop, develop
Tap the space bar to advance. 20 1. Quantity. The CPC Way of spelling reduces the quantity of units (letters). For example, the word description has 11 letters.We immediately reduce it to three groups, to two, and finally, to one. II. WRITING B.Spelling
Tap the space bar to advance. 21 2. Check it. One good way to improve your spelling is to have someone read what you have written. Have the person tell you which words were misspelled. Keep a list of these words and learn to spell them by using the CPC method. You can, of course, do the same thing if you are using a word processor with a spell-check program. II. WRITING B.Spelling
Tap the space bar to advance. 22 3. Dictionary. Another good way of improving your spelling is to consult a dictionary. Try to separate the word into letter clusters, making one of the divisions at the point where you seem to be making your error(s). For example, if you spell February as "Febuary," divide it into letter groups like this: Feb r uary; Febr uary; February. II. WRITING B.Spelling
Tap the space bar to advance. 23 4. New word. Whenever you find a new word in your readings, be sure to learn both the definition and the spelling of the word. Learn the definition first, and when you have completed your readings, learn the spelling. As you learn more about the subject, there will be fewer words to learn. II. WRITING B.Spelling
Tap the space bar to advance. 24 III. MATHEMATICS A second major problem area in learning is mathematics. Again, as in spelling, the quantity of information to be remembered can be the cause of most problems. In this respect, the problem is made worse because chunking is possible for only a limited amount of operations. Fortunately, there is a clear sequence or order and organization in most mathematical functions.
Tap the space bar to advance. 25 For example, first comes addition, then subtraction, and so on. Let's extend this rule to the solving of equations in algebra. We shall do this by looking at the addition and multiplication principles. III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 26 The two principles are as follows: Addition: If an equation a = b is true, then a + c = b + c is true for any number c. Multiplication: If an equation a = b is true, then a x c = b x c is true for any number c. By examining these two principles, we can make certain connections and see certain patterns, similarities, and differences. III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 27 First, let's write the principles together to compare them. Addition: a = b a + c = b + c Multiplication: a = b a x c = b x c III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 28 III. MATHEMATICS Both principles begin with a = b. We can make this more meaningful by substituting numbers for the symbols. For example, a is 4 and b is also 4. Therefore, we can say that 4 = 4. Addition: 4 = 4 4 + c = 4 + c Multiplication: 4 = 4 4 x c = 4 x c
Tap the space bar to advance. 29 The other symbol is c, which we can say is 2. Therefore, the equations look like this with the number substitutions: III. MATHEMATICS Addition: 4 = 4 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 Multiplication: 4 = 4 4 x 2 = 4 x 2
Tap the space bar to advance. 30 Two ways of thinking mathematically were necessary. 1)the letters can represent any number; 2)the x is a multiplication sign. In many cases, a dot () will be used in place of the x because x is commonly used to represent one of the unknown quantities in an equation. III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 31 III. MATHEMATICS To restate the addition and multiplication principles: Adding or multiplying both sides of an equation by the same number does not change its equality. The key words are same number. We can use this rule to solve for x, the unknown quantity. By adding a -3 to the +3 on the left side of the equal sign, we eliminated the -3. We also added a -3 to the right side of the equation. The result is -12. x + 3 = - 9 x + 3 + (-3) = - 9 + (-3) x = -12
Tap the space bar to advance. 32 In case you are not familiar with the addition of positive and negative numbers, the rules of addition are: If we add two positive numbers, the result is a positive number: 5 + 5 = 10. If we add a positive and a negative number, we subtract the smaller number from the larger one and give it the sign of the larger number: +5 + (-3) = 2. Also, -5 + (+3) = -2. If we add two negative numbers, the result is a larger negative number: -5 + (-2) = -7. III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 33 We can also multiply to solve for the unknown quantity. For example: 2x=8 III. MATHEMATICS Multiply both sides of the equal sign by. 2 ÷ 2 and 8÷ 2 Multiply both sides of the equation by 1.
Tap the space bar to advance. 34 In case you are not familiar with the multiplication of fractions, the number 8 is the same as. Therefore, is the same as 2 ÷ 1 = 2. When you multiply a number by its fraction that has the numerator and denominator reversed, then you get 1. Therefore: III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 35 You can also combine the addition and multiplication principles to solve a problem. For example: 2x + 3 = 9 III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 36 Let's see what lessons we have learned from our exercises in algebra. 1)Meaningful. Make formulas meaningful (e.g., by substituting numbers for letters). 2)Symbols. Learn what the symbols mean (e.g., the dot means to multiply). 3)Sequence. Learning things in sequence from simple to complex (e.g., addition to multiplication to a combination of both). III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 37 4)Review. Review earlier steps if needed (e.g., addition of positive and negative numbers). 5)Similar operations. Examine similar operations together (e.g., addition and multiplication principles). 6)Small units. Move ahead in small units that do not exceed your capacity. III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 38 7)Combine steps. Keep combining the steps in order (e.g., addition principle learned first, then multiplication, then the two together). 8)Practice. Practice solving problems. 9)Chunking. Prepare a chunking study outline and use it with the CPC Way. At least, chunk the separate symbols into a formula. III. MATHEMATICS
Tap the space bar to advance. 39 IV.SCIENCE Science is a special problem area for many students. The reasons usually involve quantity of information—there is too much of it in unorganized form to be learned at one time. The information must be learned in quantities that do not exceed a student's capacity, in a pyramidal organization, and in a chunked format. The CPC Way has been found to be most helpful in learning biology.
Tap the space bar to advance. 40 Let's see how we can apply the CPC Way to the learning of vocabulary (spelling and definition), organs, and organ systems (names and functions). The five main divisions of the body can be learned in a head-to-foot order, as follows: head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and limbs. To do this, you may even sketch a body and label the parts. IV.SCIENCE
Tap the space bar to advance. 41 The words thorax and abdomen may be new to you. A glossary to a biology book would provide definitions. They can be rewritten like this: thorax—chest: Chest region of mammals. abdomen—back: Back part of thorax. IV.SCIENCE
Tap the space bar to advance. 42 Naming the ten organ systems of the body can be made easier by using an acronym: the organ is a SCReaM SENDER. The capital letters represent the first letters of the following: Skin, Circulatory, Respiratory, Muscular, Skeletal, Excretory, Nervous, Digestive, Endocrine, and Reproductive. IV.SCIENCE
Tap the space bar to advance. 43 Even something as difficult as learning the names of the parts of the heart and the way blood circulates through it can be simplified by using a sketch and a summary, as shown in the next slide. IV.SCIENCE
Tap the space bar to advance. 44 IN (right) 1.vena cava –superior –inferior 2.right atrium 3.right A-V valve 4l right ventricle Circulatory System Diagram from: http://www.howe.k12.ok.us/~jimaskew/bio/bcirc.htm (11/9/2004) Lungs (left & right 1. semilunar valve 2. pulmonary arteries –left & right 3. pulmonary veins –left & right OUT (left) 1. left atrium 2. left A-V valve 3. left ventricle 4. semilunar valves of the aorta 5. aorta
Tap the space bar to advance. 45 Now all the student has to do is to remember "circulation of blood.“ This term leads to "in," "lungs," and "out." Note how there are similarities and differences involved:The atrium, valve, and ventricle are common to both the in- and out-flow of blood. They differ in that the in- flow parts are “right” and the out-flow parts are “left.” IV.SCIENCE
Tap the space bar to advance. 46 In all cases, we try to learn no more than our capacity can readily handle. Then we continue to chunk everything until we end up with one unit, in the example, "circulation." IV.SCIENCE
Tap the space bar to advance. 47 V. FOREIGN LANGUAGES Rules 1 - 3 There are several general rules that can be applied to learning any foreign language. 1)Review English grammar before you begin the foreign language. 2)Read a unit, phrase, clause, or sentence. While doing so, check the meanings of new words. Read only until the number of new words matches your capacity, stop, and learn the meanings of the words. 3)Learn the English definition by meaningfully associating the foreign word with the English word. See the example in the following slides.
Tap the space bar to advance. 48 SPANISH casa: casa housa house, casa means house. madre: madre mama mother, madre means mother. padre: padre papa father, padre means father. All three can be remembered by their connection to the home: casa, madre, padre. V. FOREIGN LANGUAGES Rules 1 - 3
Tap the space bar to advance. 49 GERMAN Suppe: Suppe sup soup, Suppe means soup. Kartoffel: Kartoffel cart of French fries Kartoffel means potatoes. Brot: Brot brod bread, Brot means bread. All three can be remembered by their connection to food: Suppe, Kartoffel, Brot. V.FOREIGN LANGUAGES Rules 1 - 3
Tap the space bar to advance. 50 4) Reread the phrases clauses, or sentences. 5) Repeat steps 1 through 4. (6) Review the first unit by reading one new unit, then reviewing one previous unit. V. FOREIGN LANGUAGES Rules 4 - 6
Tap the space bar to advance. 51 7) Review all of the new words in quantities that do not exceed your capacity. The best way is to organize them in categories, as explained in Chapter 4 and illustrated in 3, above. 8) Learn the grammatical functions of the new words. Again, do this in quantities that do not exceed your capacity. 9) Review the entire lesson and the one before it. V. FOREIGN LANGUAGES Rules 7 - 9
Tap the space bar to advance. 52 Keep the information load down by learning one thing at a time—meaning first, then spelling, and finally grammar. Do not try to learn all three parts at one time. One final word. Keep track of the number of words that you are learning. It is always motivating to see how much progress you have made. V. FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Tap the space bar to advance. 53 VI. SUMMARY In learning anything, the main steps are: C: Take in only as many units of information as your memory capacity can handle. P: Locate a heading in the pyramid (chunking study outline) that is above the quantity of information that your capacity can handle. C: Chunk everything together with the heading until you form a meaningful whole. C, P, C.
Tap the space bar to advance. 54 WUNDERBAR!!! WUNDERBAR! Means wonderful in German. You are now prepared for high school courses, college courses, and even professional training. People say, “Good luck!” You don’t have to depend on luck—you are trained to improve achievement in school and career. The rest is up to you!