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Wundt Voluntarism and Introspection. Voluntarism, not volunteerism  Voluntarism: the power of the will to organize the mind’s content into higher- level.

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Presentation on theme: "Wundt Voluntarism and Introspection. Voluntarism, not volunteerism  Voluntarism: the power of the will to organize the mind’s content into higher- level."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wundt Voluntarism and Introspection

2 Voluntarism, not volunteerism  Voluntarism: the power of the will to organize the mind’s content into higher- level thought processes.  An associationist model, from simple elements to larger compounds, but it does not simply progress mechanically, the will has an organizing effect.

3 The contents of the mind  Basic immediate experience (ex: the experience of “redness” or “discomfort”)  Wundt wanted to catalog all possible basic immediate experiences, and form a “periodical table of elements” as chemistry did.  The way to observe consciousness is through the method of introspection.

4 The method of introspection  Introspection or internal perception (intro = inside, spectare: looking)  Observation of simple processes under very careful conditions that can be replicated  Observers were extensively trained (10,000 observations before they were considered trained)

5 The Method of mental Chronometry  Invented by Donders  Makes use of reaction time  The more complex mental operation takes more time.  Go and try this on Dr Likely's pageDr Likely's page

6 Elements of conscious experience  Sensations: the result of the stimulation of a sense organ. Classified by:  Intensity, duration, sense modality  Feelings: the affective tone of a sensation

7 Sensations (1)  General sense:  Pressure, heat, cold  Sound  Simple noise, simple tone  Smell and taste  Smell: hard to categorize  Taste: sour, sweet, bitter, salty

8 Sensations (2)  Light  Achromatic (black/white)  Chromatic (colors)  Dimensions: tone, saturation, brightness

9 Feelings  Pleasant /unpleasant  Excitement/depression  Tension/relaxation

10 Psychical compounds  Ideas (composed of several sensations)  Composite feelings (several feelings mixed together)  Emotions (typical form in which affective processes occur). They have a temporal quality: beginning, middle, end.  Volitions (changes in ideas and feelings that bring an emotion to a close)

11 General consciousness  Interconnects the psychical compounds  When connections are broken, unconsciousness or sleep results  The process of synthesis is creative, growth oriented, and leading toward the development of opposites

12 The field of consciousness  Everything that is in the field of consciousness at one time. Includes:  What is subject to apperception, and is perceived clearly  What is subject to Apprehension, and is not seen clearly --background material, existing as a potential for apperception.

13 Apperception  Apperception is a volitional process, I.e. it has to do with the will.  It is the will that directs the attention, is at the basis of the creative synthesis that leads to the construction of knowledge

14 Apperception and clinical psychology  Projective tests such as the Rorschach and the TAT are based on the concept of apperception.  TAT: Thematic Apperception Test  Why is it that we perceive reality this or that way?

15 The End


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