Presentation on theme: "Voluntarism and Introspection"— Presentation transcript:
1Voluntarism and Introspection WundtVoluntarism and Introspection
2Voluntarism, not volunteerism Voluntarism: the power of the will to organize the mind’s content into higher-level thought processes.An associationist model, from simple elements to larger compounds, but it does not simply progress mechanically, the will has an organizing effect.
3The contents of the mind Basic immediate experience (ex: the experience of “redness” or “discomfort”)Wundt wanted to catalog all possible basic immediate experiences, and form a “periodical table of elements” as chemistry did.The way to observe consciousness is through the method of introspection.
4The method of introspection Introspection or internal perception (intro = inside, spectare: looking)Observation of simple processes under very careful conditions that can be replicatedObservers were extensively trained (10,000 observations before they were considered trained)
5The Method of mental Chronometry Invented by DondersMakes use of reaction timeThe more complex mental operation takes more time.Go and try this on Dr Likely's page
6Elements of conscious experience Sensations: the result of the stimulation of a sense organ. Classified by:Intensity, duration, sense modalityFeelings: the affective tone of a sensation
7Sensations (1) General sense: Sound Smell and taste Pressure, heat, coldSoundSimple noise, simple toneSmell and tasteSmell: hard to categorizeTaste: sour, sweet, bitter, salty
10Psychical compounds Ideas (composed of several sensations) Composite feelings (several feelings mixed together)Emotions (typical form in which affective processes occur). They have a temporal quality: beginning, middle, end.Volitions (changes in ideas and feelings that bring an emotion to a close)
11General consciousness Interconnects the psychical compoundsWhen connections are broken, unconsciousness or sleep resultsThe process of synthesis is creative, growth oriented, and leading toward the development of opposites
12The field of consciousness Everything that is in the field of consciousness at one time. Includes:What is subject to apperception, and is perceived clearlyWhat is subject to Apprehension, and is not seen clearly --background material, existing as a potential for apperception.
13ApperceptionApperception is a volitional process, I.e. it has to do with the will.It is the will that directs the attention, is at the basis of the creative synthesis that leads to the construction of knowledge
14Apperception and clinical psychology Projective tests such as the Rorschach and the TAT are based on the concept of apperception.TAT: Thematic Apperception TestWhy is it that we perceive reality this or that way?