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B.F.Skinner Hess Václav Michková Adéla Pham Thi Bich Hanh Vaňourek Tomáš.

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Presentation on theme: "B.F.Skinner Hess Václav Michková Adéla Pham Thi Bich Hanh Vaňourek Tomáš."— Presentation transcript:

1 B.F.Skinner Hess Václav Michková Adéla Pham Thi Bich Hanh Vaňourek Tomáš

2 Structure of the presentation About B. F. Skinner Behavioral approach Skinner's box Reinforcement theory of motivation Theory in practice

3 Burrhus Frederic Skinner "The consequences of behavior determine the probability that the behavior will occur again" –B. F. Skinner

4 Burrhus Frederic Skinner * March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna † August 18,1990 1926 he received his B.A in English literature at Hamilton college 1931 he received PHD from Harvard university. 1945 he was Psychology Department Chair at the University of Indiana 1948 he joined the psychology department at Harvard University

5 Some his activities and achievements Skinner innovated “radical behaviorism” Founded his own school of experimental analysis of behavior Discovered and advanced the rate of response as a dependent variable in psychological research He has 4 famous inventions: – Air crib – operant conditioning chamber – cumulative recorder-teaching machine – Pigeon-guided missile.

6 The Behavioral Approach Skinner showed that by presenting animals or people with rewards & punishments you could shape their behavior Shaping: involves presenting a reinforcement for each successive approximation of a desired behavior E.g., if we want to shape lever pressing in rats, we would reinforce any behavior that even remotely resembles lever pressing

7 Skinner Box Skinner created an apparatus that would present rewards to an organism (animals & humans!!) based on their behavioral responses. He even had his daughter stay in the box for several experiments

8 The Skinner Box

9 Reinforcement theory of motivation 1. Positive Reinforcement: Strengthens a response by presenting something that is perceived as appetitive (pleasant) after a behavior is emitted. E.g., Immediately praising an employee for coming early for job. 2. Negative Reinforcement: strengthens a response by removing a negative/undesirable consequences after a behavior is emitted. E.g., Constantly being reminded to be more productive.

10 Reinforcement theory of motivation 3. Extinction- It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies lowering the probability of undesired behavior by removing reward for that kind of behavior. E.g., if an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behavior is generating no fruitful consequence. 4. Punishment - Removing positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behavior in future E.g., Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules.

11 Implications of Reinforcement Theory Managers have to: – Set clear and reasonable expectations – Identify strong motivators – Encourage desirable behavior – Effectively use reinforcement

12 Skinner's theory in practice

13 References Glass, M. How Can Managers Use Reinforcement Theory to Motivate Employees? [online] Small business. Available from: managers-use-reinforcement-theory-motivate-employees-18559.html [Accessed 1 November 2012] Cherry K. B. F. Skinner Biography (1904-1990) [online] Available from: Management study guide. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation [online] Management study guide. Available from: [Accessed 1 November 2012]

14 Thank you for your attention

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