2 Objectives Define learning and provide examples. Identify John B Watson, BF Skinner, and Ivan Pavlov.Describe and apply the components of classical conditioning.
3 Warm UpIdentify some of the things you’ve learned in the past few months.
4 LearningLearning IS…A process leading to relatively permanent change in behavior.Learning is NOT…Reflex:Simple, unlearned behavior controlled by the ANSInstinct:Inborn, complex pattern of behavior of a species
5 Behaviorists John B. Watson Behaviorism BF Skinner Study of observable behaviorsBF SkinnerBehavior influenced by history of consequences
6 Behavioral Psychology Study of how our behavior results from stimuli in the environment and within ourselves. (Stimulus-Response Learning)Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningCognitive or Social Learning
7 Think-Pair-Share“When I’m driving and see a stoplight turn red, I stop”Stimulus – red lightReaction – stopWrite down three more conditioned responses you do on a daily basis.Phone rings, pick it upBell rings, you switch classesTeacher asks ?, you raise hand
8 Classical Conditioning Stimulus in environment triggers response in subject.Ivan Pavlov( )Physiologist researching digestion in dogs
9 Activity PsychSim 4.0 “Classical Conditioning” This activity provides a review of Pavlov’s famous experiment on the salivary response in dogs, as well as the basic processes of classical conditioning: acquisition, generalization, discrimination training, and extinction.
10 Pavlov’s Experiment Before Conditioning (Pre-Learning) Ring tuning fork (NS) No response from dogFood (UCS) Dog salivates automatically (UCR)During Conditioning (Learning)Ring fork (NS) Present food (UCS) Salivation (UCR)After Conditioning (Post-Learning)Ring fork (CS) Salivation (CR)
11 Think-Pair-ShareWhat other conditioned stimuli may have existed in Pavlov’s experiment?
12 General Principles of C2 AcquisitionTime period it takes for NS to be associated with UCSGeneralizationStimuli similar to CS cause CRDiscriminationDistinguishing between different stimuliExtinctionDisappearance of CR to CSSpontaneous RecoveryPreviously extinguished CR returns suddenly
13 Eye Blink Experiment UCS – puff of air in eye UCR – blink NS – tone CS – toneCR – blink
14 Emotional Conditioning John B. WatsonProve human emotional reaction was result of conditioningFear, rage, sadnessLittle Albert
15 Albert Activity Set up experimental design. Give examples of generalization in experiment.Cite criticisms of experimentIdentify ways researchers could help Albert get over his fears.
16 Albert Answers Before: Rat No Response Loud noise Fear During: Rat Noise FearAfter:Rat FearGeneralization:RabbitFur CoatCriticisms:Screwed up kidDidn’t fix him
17 Albert Answers Fixing Albert’s Fears Counter Conditioning: pleasant stimulus presented with fear object, re-conditionSystematic Desensitization: gradually exposed to fear-evoking stimuli in pleasant circumstanceFlooding: exposed to fear stimulus until response extinguished
18 Other ExamplesAssociate song with relationship…break up, song makes you sadAssociate smellsTaste Aversion – Got sick eating spaghetti, can’t eat it anymore