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مولود جعفری 881111408. Coping Skills Training For Addiction دكتر رضا باقريان گروه روانپزشكي دانشگاه علوم پزشكي اصفهان.

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Presentation on theme: "مولود جعفری 881111408. Coping Skills Training For Addiction دكتر رضا باقريان گروه روانپزشكي دانشگاه علوم پزشكي اصفهان."— Presentation transcript:

1 مولود جعفری

2 Coping Skills Training For Addiction دكتر رضا باقريان گروه روانپزشكي دانشگاه علوم پزشكي اصفهان

3 Have you ever wondered why some people can drink alcohol or use a substance and walk away from it without developing an addiction? Have you ever

4 Addiction equation Before I reveal the answer to that question let's review what I like to call the addiction equation. Family dysfunctions causing emotional pain + low level of self-esteem + emotional coping skills + learned addictive behavior from surroundings, friends, and/ or family = ADDICTION!

5 Addiction equation Emotional pain Low level of self-esteem Emotional coping skills Learned addictive behavior

6 A high level of self-esteem and coping skills. Certainly, there are some people who experience physical, verbal, sexual abuse, and many other dysfunctional patterns that manage to lead perfectly, healthy, happy lives which are free of addiction. And, I would also venture to say that many of those same people have been subjected to examples of addictive behavior by their friends and/or family as well! So, why do these individuals opt "to just say no?" The answer is a high level of self-esteem and coping skills. Low level of self-esteem Coping skills deficits

7 Definition of the word cope How you can increase your level of coping skills, so let's break it down. First, we need to define the word cope. Cope; to deal successfully with a difficult problem or situation. Therefore, increasing your coping skills translates into improving your ability to deal with a difficult problem.

8 مفهوم مقابله مفهوم مقابله به عنوان تلاشهاي شناختي و رفتاري به منظور تسلط يافتن بر موقعيتهاي تهديد آميز تعريف شده است. بر اساس نظريه لازاروس و فولكمن رفتارهاي مقابله اي در رويارويي با استرس شامل دو فرايند مي شود : فرايند مسئله - مدار كه طي آن فرد با مسئله اي كه علت واقعي آشفتگي در وي شده است مواجه مي شود فرايند هيجان - مدار كه بر اساس آن فرد تلاش مي نمايد پاسخهاي هيجاني خود را تنظيم نمايد.

9 Coping strategies: 1) Problem Oriented 2) Emotional Oriented

10 Intrapersonal Skills Managing thoughts and cravings for use Anger management Negative thinking Pleasant activities Relaxation skills Decision-making Problem-solving Planning for emergencies

11 Interpersonal Skills These skills are taught for coping with situations in which other people are an important factor or are actually part of the problem. Drink/drug refusal Refusing requests Handling criticism Intimate relationships Enhancing social support network Assertiveness training General social skills Coping skills training with significant others

12 Uramanat - North-Western Iran

13 Etiology of addiction Acquisition Phase Maintenance Phase

14 Acquisition Phase: Biological mechanisms (Brain Reward System) Diffusion Superiority Feeling Imitation Hedonism Pleasure Seeking (Expertise) Pain Relief High Neuroticism Socialization (Social Norms) Impulsive Control Disorder Personality Disorders (Anti social and Borderline) Peer Influence Availability Low Self- Esteem Mood Disturbances (Depression, Anxiety, Hostility) Cultural Factors

15 Diffusion Superiority Feeling مصرف مواد مثلا ترياك به فرد يك احساس superiority مي دهد حتي اگر معطوف به نتيجه مثبت نباشد و معمولاً از رده هاي بالا به پايين سرايت مي كند ( خواستم مثل آنها ( افراد بالاتر باشم ). خان معتاد به ترياك است بقيه براي اينكه خودشان را شبيه خان احساس كنند ( احساس superiority ) ترياك مصرف مي كنند. يا در يك خانواده 5 الي 6 نفر معتاد هستند. مثل يك بيماري عفوني گسترش مييابد. در برخي شهرها يا محله ها بيشتر است.

16 Imitation در imitation يادگيري رفتار با مزيت خالص فردي و معطوف به نتيجه مثبت است. مي تواند انگيزه و ادامه بر اساس لذت طلبي است. Negative Emotions Lonely Tired

17 Intimate relationships Clients are taught about self disclosing their emotions, sharing their positive feelings, and the importance of expressing negative feelings (in an appropriate way) to prevent things from building up. They may also be taught listening skills, which are an essential component of an intimate relationship. Clients practice these skills in simulated situations drawn from their recent past in which they felt angry, anxious, or sad with loved ones. Homework involves planning how to handle one such situation, and then actually trying out the skills in it.

18 Hedonism Pleasure Seeking (Expertise) افرادي كه pleasure seekingيا Hedonism هستند احتمال اعتياد بيشتري دارند. انگيزه شروع مي تواند لذت طلبي باشد. وقتي hedonism بالا باشد برنامه هاي درماني مبتني بر سخنراني، كلاس،..... نمي تواند مفيد باشد بلكه بايد در برنامه هاي درماني جنبه هاي pleasure و hedonic مورد توجه قرار گيرد.

19 مهارت در ايجاد لذت منظور مهارت هايي است كه فرد ياد مي گيرد در ايجاد كسب لذت. وقتي كه فرد در طي رشد فرصت كسب مهارت هاي ايجاد لذت را پيدا نكند و در بزرگسالي در ايجاد لذت expert نمي شود لذا به سراغ لذت هاي خام كه مستقيماً مغز را فعال مي كند مي رود. بنابر اين به مواد به منظور كسب لذت هاي خام رو مي آورد. اگر مهارت هاي ايجاد لذت از طريق فعاليت هايي مانند هنر، بازي و نظاير آن در فرد رشد كند و فرد در آن مهارت پيدا كند، كمتر احتمال دارد كه به مصرف مواد گرايش پيدا كند. همچنين خود مصرف مواد باعث ميشود فرد در ايجاد ساير لذت ها مهارت نيابد. براي لذت طلبي خط پايه اي وجود دارد. با مصرف مواد خط پايه لذت بالا مي رود و لذت ساير پاداش ها مانند سلامتي ، همسر، كار، فرزند، مسافرت نسبت به لذت مصرف مواد پايين تر قرار مي گيرد. بنابراين در درمان معتادها اين مسئله را بايد در نظر گرفت كه با ارائه اين پاداش ها نمي توان فرد معتاد را تشويق به ترك نمود چون پايين تر از خط لذت طلبي او قرار دارند. ترغيب به فعاليتهاي پرهيجان نظير كوهنوردي، صخره نوردي، اسكي، مسافرت و ورزشهاي پرهيجان در زندگي فرد برنامه هائي وجود داشته باشد تنوع و لذت باشد.

20 Pleasant activities Clients may discover a void in their lives as free time becomes available once they are no longer so occupied with acquiring, using, and recovering from the effects of alcohol or drugs. They may also find that they are leading an unbalanced lifestyle in which they fulfill numerous obligations, with little if any time devoted to recreation or self- fulfillment. A session on developing a pleasant activities plan is intended to help clients prepare enjoyable, low-risk ways of filling the free time that will be opened up, and achieve a better balance between their obligations and more enjoyable or self-fulfilling activities. A number of strategies for selecting and engaging in these activities are identified.

21 Pain Relief انگيزه كاهش دردهاي جسمي مي باشد. اصلاح باورهاي غلط و آموزش مهارتهاي شناختي به منظور به چالش كشيدن اين باورهاي غير منطقي

22 High Neuroticism افرادي كه High neuroticism هستند احتمال اعتياد بيشتري دارند. It is a Global Triat

23 Socialization Social Norms Non-Assertiveness

24 Peer Influence گروه همقطاران و دوستان باعث فشار جمعي شده و به خصوص در افرادي كه رشد اجتماعي مناسبي نداشتند و توان ” نه “ گفتن ندارند مي تواند باعث روآوري به مواد شود.

25 Assertiveness training May be offered to enable clients to express their emotions and opinions clearly and directly, in a manner that leaves them satisfied that their views were heard, but without doing so in a way that alienates or antagonizes others.

26 drug refusal Knowing how to cope with offers to use alcohol or drugs is an important skill for the majority of chemically dependent clients because such offers are fairly common. Clients are taught to say ‘no’ convincingly without giving a double message, to suggest an alternative activity that does not involve substance use, to change the subject to a different topic of conversation, and if the other person persists, to ask him/her not to offer alcohol or drugs any more. With considerable practice of this skill, clients should be able to respond quickly and convincingly when these situations arise. Role-playing of refusal scenes progress from ones that are easy to handle, building to more persistent offers that are difficult to refuse. The homework exercise involves planning how to respond in a variety of different situations in hich alcohol or drugs may be offered.

27 Refusing requests People often feel discomfort when refusing other peoples’ requests for favors, and therefore may tend not to do so. However, failure to refuse to do something they really don’t want to do can leave them feeling imposed upon, self-critical, resentful, or angry, any of which may serve as triggers for cravings or use of alcohol/drugs. Clients are taught to refuse unwanted requests by first acknowledging the requesting person’s position and feelings, and to then make a firm, clear statement of refusal. They are also taught to consider whether or not a compromise might be appropriate under the circumstances. Opportunities to role-play request-refusal are provided in the session, and for homework clients are asked to formulate responses they might use in situations of this type that they are likely to encounter.

28 Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder

29 Low Self Esteem در هنگام فشار جمعي يا craving افراد با اعتماد به نفس بالا داراي توان امتناع كردن خواهند بود ودر مقابل افراد با اعتماد به نفس پائين داراي توان امتناع كردن و ” نه “ گفتن ندارند. برخي از افراد با اعتماد به نفس پائين افرادي هستند كه تحمل ناكامي را ياد نگرفته اند.

30 Assertive training May be offered to enable clients to express their emotions and opinions clearly and directly, in a manner that leaves them satisfied that their views were heard, but without doing so in a way that alienates or antagonizes others. Training for increasing Self Esteem

31 Mood Disturbances Depression Anxiety Hostility

32 Relaxation skills (Anxiety) Relaxation may be a useful way of coping with various circumstances that either precede or are exacerbated by alcohol/drug use, such as stress, tension, anxiety, anger, sleeplessness, and cravings to use. Skills training involves alternate tensing and relaxing of various muscle groups, to enable clients to identify tension states and their alternative, relaxation. In addition to relaxation of muscle groups, clients are taught slow breathing and the use of calming imagery. As these skills are practiced and acquired, clients can be taught to apply them in various situations, stressful ones in particular.

33 Negative thinking (Depression) This is another common high-risk situation. Separate skills training sessions are available for increasing one’s awareness of negative thinking and for managing it when it occurs. Clients are taught to recognize various types of negative thinking habits that may occur automatically. Skills for managing negative thoughts include substituting positive thoughts or feelings, thought stopping, and positive self-talk. Exercises give clients practice in identifying their negative thinking and negative self-talk, and provide an opportunity for them to prepare alternative, substitute responses. A related common problem is negative moods and/or depression.

34 Anger management (Hostility) Anger is a very common antecedent to alcohol/drug use. Clients are taught about the warning signs of anger, both external and internal signs, so they can identify them early and begin to manage them before anger grows strong and becomes harder to control. Skills for managing anger include the use of calm-down phrases, identifying aspects of a situation that are provoking anger, and considering options that might help to resolve the situation. These skills can be modeled by the therapist and then role-played by the client. For homework, clients are asked to record their handling of the next anger situation they encounter.

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36 Maintenance Phase Relapse equation: Cues + Negative mood and Positive mood+ Urge + Expectations + Activation of Brain Reward System * Low Self Efficacy = Relapse or No Relapse Cues Negative mood and Positive mood Urge Expectations Physiological Factors Low Self Efficacy

37 Maintenance Phase Classical Conditioning Hedonism Expectancy (Cognitions) Stigma Low Self Efficacy Stereotypes: Irrational Beliefs Low Abuse + Stress = Heavy Abuse Complication

38 creating a new life You don't recover from an addiction by stopping using. You recover by creating a new life where it is easier to not use. If you don't create a new life, then all the factors that brought you to your addiction will eventually catch up with you again.

39 Classical Conditioning وقتي كه cue ها ظاهر مي شود نظير ( منقل، اتاق مصرف، علائم جسمي يا افراد ) فرد دچار خلق منفي، بيقراري و نا آرامي ( علائم محروميت ) مي گردد. سپس دچار وسوسه شده و منجر به مصرف مواد مي شود. Cue Activation of Brain Reward System Withdrawal Symptoms Craving Relapse

40 Cues Some common high-risk situations are described: Hungry Negative Emotions Lonely Tired People. (People who you use with or who are related to your use. People who you have conflicts with, and who make you want to use. People who you celebrate with by using. People who encourage you to use either directly or indirectly.) Places. (Places where you use or where you get your drugs or alcohol.) Things. (Things that remind you of your using.)

41 Coping strategies can also involve physical actions. It is highly recommended that individuals in recovery avoid places, people, and situations that are connected to their addiction. The place, time of day, people, and music are all triggering emotional responses that encourage him to use. An effective coping strategy, in this case, is to avoid a situation that holds such strong triggers.

42 Make a list of your high- risk situations Avoiding those high-risk situations helps you create a new life where it's easier to not use. Of course, you can't always avoid these situations. But if you're aware of them, they won't catch you off guard, and you can prevent little craving from turning into major urges. Addiction is sneaky. Sometimes you won't see your high-risk situations until you're right in the middle of one. That's why it's important that you learn to look for them. Make a list of your high-risk situations and to keep it with you. Go over the list with someone in recovery so that can spot any situations that you might have missed. Make the list and keep it with you. Some day that list may save your life.

43 Relapse is a process, it's not an event Relapse starts weeks or even months before the event of physical relapse. There are three stages of relapse. 1. Emotional relapse 2. Mental relapse 3. Physical relapse During the first two stages, coping strategies can be instrumental in defusing relapse.

44 Emotional relapse you're not thinking about using. But your emotions and behaviors are setting you up for a possible relapse in the future. Emotional relapse describes the typical emotions experienced by an individual who has not started using again but whose emotions are becoming unhealthy. The signs of emotional relapse are: Anxiety Intolerance Anger Defensiveness Mood swings Isolation Not asking for help Not going to meetings Poor eating habits Poor sleep habits

45 Early Relapse Prevention Relapse prevention at this stage means recognizing that you're in emotional relapse and changing your behavior. Recognize that you're isolating and remind yourself to ask for help. Recognize that you're anxious and practice relaxation techniques. Recognize that your sleep and eating habits are slipping and practice self-care. If you don't change your behavior at this stage and you live too long in the stage of emotional relapse you'll become exhausted, and when you're exhausted you will want to escape, which will move you into mental relapse. Practice self-care. The most important thing you can do to prevent relapse at this stage is take better care of yourself. Think about why you use. You use drugs or alcohol to escape, relax, or reward yourself. Therefore you relapse when you don't take care of yourself and create situations that are mentally and emotionally draining that make you want to escape.

46 Mental Relapse In mental relapse there's a war going on in your mind. Part of you wants to use, but part of you doesn't. In the early phase of mental relapse you're just idly thinking about using. But in the later phase you're definitely thinking about using. The signs of mental relapse are: Thinking about people, places, and things you used with Glamorizing your past use Lying Hanging out with old using friends Fantasizing about using Thinking about relapsing Planning your relapse around other people's schedules

47 Techniques for Dealing with Mental Urges Remind yourself of the negative consequences you've already suffered, and the potential consequences that lie around the corner if you relapse again. If you could control your use, you would have done it by now. Tell someone that you're having urges to use. Call a friend, a support, or someone in recovery. Distract yourself. When you think about using, do something to occupy yourself. Call a friend. Go to a meeting. Get up and go for a walk. Wait for 30 minutes. Most urges usually last for less than 15 to 30 minutes. When you're in an urge, it feels like an eternity. But if you can keep yourself busy and do the things you're supposed to do, it'll quickly be gone.

48 Do your recovery one day at a time Don't think about whether you can stay abstinent forever. That's a paralyzing thought. It's overwhelming even for people who've been in recovery for a long time. One day at a time, means you should match your goals to your emotional strength. When you feel strong and you're motivated to not use, then tell yourself that you won't use for the next week or the next month. But when you're struggling and having lots of urges, and those times will happen often, tell yourself that you won't use for today or for the next 30 minutes. Do your recovery in bite- sized chunks and don't sabotage yourself by thinking too far ahead.

49 Hedonism Incearsed Hedonic Hemostasis (Expertise)

50 Pleasant activities Clients may discover a void in their lives as free time becomes available once they are no longer so occupied with acquiring, using, and recovering from the effects of alcohol or drugs. They may also find that they are leading an unbalanced lifestyle in which they fulfill numerous obligations, with little if any time devoted to recreation or self- fulfillment. A session on developing a pleasant activities plan is intended to help clients prepare enjoyable, low-risk ways of filling the free time that will be opened up, and achieve a better balance between their obligations and more enjoyable or self-fulfilling activities. A number of strategies for selecting and engaging in these activities are identified.

51 Managing thoughts and cravings for use Thoughts about drinking or drug use, and their more intense version, cravings, are common among people recovering from substance use disorders, and therefore this training module is generally used with all clients. They are taught a number of skills for managing thoughts and cravings, including challenging them, recalling unpleasant experiences that resulted from using, anticipating the benefits of not using, distracting oneself, delaying the decision whether or not to use, leaving the situation, and seeking support. Clients are given a 3x5 card on which to record the unpleasant effects of past use and the anticipated benefits of not using, and are instructed to carry it with them and refer to it whenever they think of using. They are also asked to imagine various high-risk situations, and practice coping with the thoughts and cravings that might accompany them.

52 Expectancy Positive Expectancy Negative Expectancy اگر مواد مصرف كنم مي دانم كه دردها و علائم جسمي رفع مي شود اگر مواد مصرف كنم مي دانم كه حالم بدتر مي شود.

53 Stigma Stigma ( منظور كليشه هاي رايج درباره فرد معتاد است ) نظير بي عرضه، به درد نخور، بي اراده ) اين كليشه ها Self Esteem را به شدت خراب مي كند. Stigma Low Self Esteem Grandiosity گاهي اين كليشه ها با خدشه دار كردن Self-steem معتاد را در موضع دفاعي قرار مي دهند. و باعث تلاش وي براي حفظ Self Esteem مي شوند. اين تلاش ها در اكثر موارد به صورت بزرگ منشي تظاهر مي كند كه اصطلاحاً حرف هاي پا منقلي مي گويند.

54 Low Self Efficacy

55 Stereotypes: Irrational Beliefs Schema مصرف مواد در ابتدا باعث تخفيف خلق منفي و تقويت خلق مثبت مي شود. در نتيجه تكرار اين تاثير طرحواره هاي شناختي مربوط به آن شكل مي گيرد. نظير آن كه مواد مخدر من را آرام مي كند ، يا حالم را بهتر ميكند. وقتي اين طرحواره ها شكل گرفت در آينده در اثر فعال شدن آنها در نتيجه استرس فرد مجدداً به مصرف مواد رو مي آورد. يعني به طور اتوماتيك اين طرحواره ها درذهن فرد فعال مي شود و بر اساس آن فرد نياز به مصرف مواد پيدا مي كند. آموزش مهارتهاي شناختي به منظور شناسائي، به چالش كشيدن افكار كليشه اي، جايگزيني و ارزيابي

56 Chehel Sotoun Palace Pavilion - Isfahan

57 Intimate relationships Some clients may experience difficulty expressing their feelings, or communicating effectively and sensitively in intimate relationships, especially where there is considerable conflict and tension as a result of substance use. This can be a bar to intimacy, both emotional and sexual. Clients are taught about self disclosing their emotions, sharing their positive feelings, and the importance of expressing negative feelings (in an appropriate way) to prevent things from building up. They may also be taught listening skills, which are an essential component of an intimate relationship. Clients practice these skills in simulated situations drawn from their recent past in which they felt angry, anxious, or sad with loved ones. Homework involves planning how to handle one such situation, and then actually trying out the skills in it.

58 Enhancing social support network Support from others often makes people feel more confident about their ability to cope with problems. Given the number of life problems caused or exacerbated by substance abuse, a good social support network can enhance the chances of coping effectively. However, as their substance abuse developed, clients may have alienated potential supporters and will have to work to rebuild their support network. They are asked to consider the various types of support that might be helpful to them, who might be helpful in providing the support they need, and how to go about developing that support. They are also taught about the importance of reciprocity, i.e., lending support to others as part of the process of building one’s support network. They are given practice asking for support with particular problems, and offering to support others with their problems.

59 Problem-solving This is a ‘generic’ skill, not specifically related to chemical dependence. It is recommended to include it among the skills being trained, to provide a means of coping if clients unavoidably enter a difficult situation for which they have no apparent coping response immediately available. The steps in the problem-solving model include problem recognition, identification of the problem’s component elements as precisely as possible, brain storming potential solutions, selecting the most promising approach, trying it out, assessing its adequacy, and refining the plan if necessary. With this skill, clients are provided a way of coping with unanticipated problems that might otherwise stump them and put them at high risk for drinking or drug use.

60 Handling criticism Criticism, whether giving it or receiving it, can be high-risk since it is often accompanied by feelings of anger. This is even more the case when receiving criticism about drinking/drug use. When giving criticism, clients are taught to calm down first, to state the criticism in terms of their own feelings, to use a firm and clear tone of voice but not an angry one, to criticize specific behaviors and request a behavior change, and to be willing to work out a compromise. When receiving criticism they are taught not to get defensive or counterattack, to ask the other person to clarify the content and purpose of the criticism, to find something in the criticism to agree with, and to work towards formulating a compromise. In this way, criticism may be transformed into a potentially constructive communication that could produce positive results for both parties involved. Clients practice using the skills in various situations including those that specifically involve criticisms about alcohol/drug use.

61 General social skills A number of additional social skills may also be taught to help clients better handle social situations that might otherwise put them at risk for using. Various communications skills (e.g., how to start conversations, use of nonverbal behavior) may be taught to help clients cope with deficits in communications that could leave them feeling socially inadequate or isolated, and therefore at greater risk for using.

62 Intrapersonal Skills Managing thoughts and cravings for use Anger management Negative thinking Pleasant activities Relaxation skills Decision-making Problem-solving Planning for emergencies

63 Interpersonal Skills These skills are taught for coping with situations in which other people are an important factor or are actually part of the problem. Drink/drug refusal Refusing requests Handling criticism Intimate relationships Enhancing social support network Assertiveness training General social skills Coping skills training with significant others

64 Planning for emergencies This one is in some ways similar to problem-solving, inasmuch as it attempts to provide clients a way of coping with situations that were not specifically anticipated in their skills training, and for which no solution is immediately apparent. The difference here is that the precipitating events are so overwhelming, and so likely to precipitate drinking or drug use, that there may not be enough time to initiate the problem-solving process. To cope with such ‘emergency’ situations, clients are assisted in setting up an emergency plan for use in high-risk situations in which strong cravings develop and alcohol/drug use becomes imminent, or actually occurs.

65 Coping skills training with significant others Since problems within an intimate relationship, such as maladaptive communication patterns, lack of intimacy, and control struggles, can be precipitants of substance use, having a significant other participate in skills-oriented treatment can enhance treatment outcome. Issues to be dealt with in a session with a significant other include deciding whether or not to keep alcohol or drug paraphernalia in the house, identifying how the sober partner can most effectively support and reinforce the substance abuser’s efforts to change, fostering more positive communication within the relationship, and learning how to solve problems together. During the session, the couple can practice the problem-solving process as it applies to a current problem they’re facing, and begin discussing how they might apply other skills taught in this program to their daily lives. A homework assignment can be designed with their collaboration, to further their discussion and implementation of coping skills.

66 Waterfalls near Shiraz - Iran


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