2 PreviewHuman Migration- Global climate change thousands of years ago had many effects. Wild animals moved to new areas. Early hunter-gatherers traveled out of Africa. Over time, they spread to the Middle East, Asia, Oceania, and North and South America.The Hunter-Gatherer Life- Early humans used fire, weapons, and other increasingly advanced tools to protect and care for the members of their social groups.Language and Art- The creation of social groups led to more communication among early humans. Homo sapiens had the ability to speak and use language. This helped individuals and groups interact. Modern humans also began to express themselves through art.
3 Reach Into Your Background From what you know already know about early humans how did their environment impact their daily life. What are some ways that humans today are influenced by their environment? (5 minutes)
4 Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
5 Key Ideas- Human Migration Early humans left Africa for the Middle East and Asia when the grassy lands of Africa turned into a desert.Warmer temperatures encouraged modern humans to spread into Europe.Lower sea levels allowed humans to travel from China to Oceania by foot. They were also able to travel from Siberia to Alaska over the Bering Land Bridge.
6 Early HumansHistorians are not sure exactly where the first Homo sapiens, or modern humans, appeared.However, the earliest fossils have been found in the south and east of Africa. They are believed to be more than 150,000 years old.Africa had warm, pleasant weather and crops grew well there.
7 From Africa to Southwest Asia Around 80,000 years ago, the Earth’s climate changed in a huge way.This type of change is known as the Ice Age.This harmed the early humans who were hunter-gatherers since it made getting food more difficult.
8 From Africa to Southwest Asia During the Ice Age humans lived by following and hunting the large herds of animals that roamed across the lands.As the early humans traveled, they would gather nuts, fruits, and plants.Early humans constantly had to find both food and water.
9 Key TermIce Age- A period of time when huge sheets of ice covered much of the earth's land, formed from ocean water, leaving ocean levels lower than they are now which exposed dry land that connected the continents.
10 Key TermHunter-Gatherer- A person who finds food by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild grains, fruits, and nuts.
11 From Africa to Southwest Asia Early humans search for food and water led them overtime to crossed the Red Sea into what is now Yemen.There they hoped to find a better place to live.This was the period of the first human migration, or large-scale movement of people, to new lands.
12 Spreading Through Asia and into Europe After crossing the Red Sea, groups of hunter-gatherers spread out into several different regions.Heavy rains in India and Arabia caused the rivers of the area to flood.To avoid the flooding rivers, wild animals moved north and east. The hunter-gatherers followed the animals.
13 Spreading Through Asia and into Europe Some groups of humans followed the coast around India and Southeast Asia. This route brought them to modern-day China and Russia. Other groups stayed in Southwest Asia. They traveled up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This area is now known as the Fertile Crescent. It was here that the earliest organized human civilizations would form.
14 Key TermThe Fertile Crescent- A crescent-shaped area where agriculture and civilizations evolved first.
15 Migration to the Fertile Crescent Video- Migration to the Fertile Crescent
16 Spreading Through Asia and into Europe During the Ice Age, early humans did not live in Europe. The climate was too cold.But the Ice Age ended around 40,000 years ago. When this happened, the climate of Europe grew milder and more inviting for humans.
17 The Journey to OceaniaLower sea levels caused by the Ice Age meant that more of the earth was covered by land.This allowed humans to reach many places in the Pacific Ocean by foot.Australia has always been separated from any other land by at least 60 miles of ocean. Yet, scientists have found human remains in Australia from this period of migration.
18 Settling the AmericasAlaska and Siberia are separated by a narrow channel of water. This channel of water is called the Bering Strait.Scientists believe that 15,000 years ago, Alaska and Siberia were connected by a narrow strip of land. This strip is known as the Bering Land Bridge.It is thought that groups of hunter-gatherers followed wild animals across this land bridge into North America and later, made their way south to South America.
19 Key TermBering Land Bridge- A narrow strip of land scientists believe excited 15,000 years ago, that connected Alaska and Siberia.
21 Key Ideas- The Hunter-Gatherer Life The elderly and ill were cared for when they could no longer provide food for themselves.Tools included spears, stone blades, and chisels. People used needles for sewing clothing.Fire was very important for hunting, defense, and warmth. Controlling fire was a major turning point in the development of human culture.
22 The Birth of SocietyEarly hunter-gatherers most likely began to work and live together in social groups over time.Hearths were used for cooking food. They also provided warmth and safety. Hearths dating to 800,000 years ago.This suggests that early humans gathered together at hearths for food and comfort.
23 The Birth of SocietyScientists also believe that early hunter-gatherers took care of members of their groups.Scientists also have evidence that early humans buried the dead carefully. Graves have been found throughout the world.Living together in groups was also important for hunting.
24 Hunting Tools Early humans used hunting tools like spears and knives. These tools worked well when hunters could get close to the animals.The bow and arrow would not be invented for thousands of years.
25 Hunting ToolsAfter some time, fire became an important hunting tool. Some groups of early humans in Europe may have used fire to drive large animals into swamps.They left the animals to die rather than risking injury by trying to kill them.
26 Hunting ToolsOf course, fire served other purposes too. It provided warmth and a way to cook. It provided protection from animals or enemy humans. Fire also turned meals into social gatherings.
27 What’s So Great About Fire? Reading Handout- What’s So Great About Fire?
28 Making Tools The first tools were very simple. Stone blades appeared in the Paleolithic Age around 40,000 years ago.The improvement of tools shows the development of human thinking. People were becoming better at solving problems and using reason.
29 Making ToolsLong, thin pieces of bone were carved out to form needles.These needles were used to make better clothing.Larger pieces of bone were made into sharp hooks. These could be used in hunting and fishing.
30 Key Ideas- Language and Art Language and art were powerful tools used by early humans to share knowledge.Creating art takes time and effort. The creation of art shows that humans had moved beyond simply struggling to survive and had begun to create culture.
31 LanguageModern humans are able to speak because of the size and position of our larynx. Early man could still sounds. But they were not able to make the type of sounds that are necessary for modern language.The larynx is sometimes called the voice box.
32 LanguageHomo sapiens had a longer and lower larynx than apes or Neanderthals, an earlier human species. The longer and lower larynx allowed Homo sapiens to shape air into the sounds that make up human speech.
33 LanguageLanguage played a very important role in the development of human society.Language allows us to communicate our thoughts quickly and easily.It also allows us to share knowledge. Language helps to create human culture.
35 The Beginnings of ArtThe first human art appeared about 35,000 years ago.Early art included paintings on cave walls.It also included statues carved from stone and bone. The earliest images are hidden deep inside caves.
36 Cave PaintingsCave paintings were done with colors made from natural resources.Many paintings were detailed pictures of animals.Creating art takes time and effort. The creation of art shows that humans had moved beyond simply struggling to survive and had begun to create culture.
37 Perceptions of Art and Creativity Video- Perceptions of Art and Creativity
38 Independent ActivityWhat has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
39 Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)