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Retention USSF Referee Instructor CourseITIP United States Soccer Federation.

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Presentation on theme: "Retention USSF Referee Instructor CourseITIP United States Soccer Federation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Retention USSF Referee Instructor CourseITIP United States Soccer Federation

2 Lesson Set Retention of the Average Adult  10% of what the adult Reads  20% of what the adult Hears  30% of what the adult Sees  50% of what the adult Sees & Hears  70% of what the adult Says  90% of what the adult Says & Does Retention

3 Lesson Set Many instructors come into the classroom with a great deal of information, and when they leave they still have it, but are the only ones who have it Retention

4 Lesson Set I DON’T REMEMBER Are words that stand as three tombstones commemorating failure, no matter how valiant the effort in the teaching-learning process. Understanding the validated principles of retention provides the teacher who wishes to attack the problem of “I don’t remember” by planning lessons where retention is more probable. Retention

5 Lesson Set Can you recall your Social Security number? Can you recall your telephone number? Do you know your driver’s license number? Why do you remember the first two numbers and not the third one?? This lesson module will help you build retention into your lessons. Retention

6 Lesson Objective At the end of this lesson, you will accurately state or list: The retention formula The (6) variables of retention Provide a practical classroom example of each Retention

7 Definition Retention is the preservation of a learning that makes recall and recognition possible and relearning easier. There is no one factor that ensures retention. The factors need to be separated in order to learn about them, but you need to remember that most of them are operating together and interacting all the time. Retention

8 What brings about retention? DOL (Degree of Original Learning) + Practice = Retention Retention

9 Principles of Retention 1.Meaning 2.Degree of Original Learning 3.Feeling Tone 4.Transfer 5.Modeling 6.Practice Retention

10 Meaning Helps the student identify meaningful relationship among parts Organized terms Past knowledge and experience Meaning vs. nonsense Pattern Aids Mnemonic devices Retention

11 Organized Terms Students are more apt to remember material which is more meaningful than material which has no meaning. Words organized into a pattern that has meaning will be remembered more readily. Meaningful material is learned faster and remembered longer. Retention

12 Past Knowledge and Experience Relationship of new material to the student’s past knowledge and experience will enhance retention. Meaning vs. Nonsense Items Eliminate using nonsensical material Substitute simple, easy and common words Retention

13 Pattern Provide a pattern to your information Use charts, diagrams, outlines, grouping Aids Ways to achieve more meaning: Change voice …. move to other side of room Include illustrations Change of pace …. quiz, have partner take over Colored markers …. Key words in different colors Retention

14 Mnemonic Devices You may have to rely on mnemonics when material does not lend itself to the previous strategies. A formula or rhyme, used as an aid in remembering Verbal tricks to help in remembering Acronym for remembering a list of items … DOGSO Retention

15 Meaning The most important variable to consider in trying to teach so that students remember. It is not inherent in material, but in the relationship of the material to the student’s own past knowledge or experience. Meaning has two parts: Understanding Valuing Retention

16 To Promote Understanding Demonstrations Models Examples Definitions Past experiences To Promote Valuing Relevancy Emotions Feelings Retention

17 Meaning After you make sure that as much meaning as possible has been incorporated, you can then turn to the next factor … Retention

18 Degree of Original Learning Refers to how well something was learned in the first place. It is the “peg” on which to hang additional knowledge. Ex. We’ve all had the embarrassing experience of being introduced to someone only to find a few minutes later we can’t remember their name. This is insufficient learning at the first exposure. Retention

19 Degree of Original Learning Most skills, concepts, attitudes and abilities are not fully acquired in one day, one week or even one year. DOL Aids Vary the activities … use several visual aids Vary the examples, so it’s not boring Anything that is not learned well is rapidly forgotten …. So teach well, not just “once over lightly”. Retention

20 Degree of Original Learning Get the students involved in an activity, have them practice and participate in practical, related demonstrations Ex. Coin toss or cautions/send offs Many instructors incorrectly assume that one time is enough. Retention

21 Degree of Original Learning How trainees learn Sight = 70-80% Sound = 10-20% All other = 0-10% “When I hear, I forget When I see, I remember When I do, I learn” Retention

22 Degree of Original Learning If the degree of original learning is not high, the student cannot be expected to extend their thinking and retention probably will not occur. Some things that should be done to control the DOL are: Make sure learning is secure Check for understanding Do not teach rules and exceptions at the same time Retention

23 Feeling Tone The learning environment that you provide in a class. How the student feels about the learning.  Pleasant (+)  Unpleasant (-)  Neutral Retention

24 Pleasant Tone Try to remember one of your worst days as a referee – one you wish to forget. … Vivid. Unpleasant Tone Now think of a good day, where everything went extremely well. … Vivid. Neutral Tone Try to recall an ordinary day. It’s hard to remember. … Not “Tuned In” … Just so-so. Retention

25 Feeling Tone You have just experienced the relation of feeling tone to memory. Pleasant … promotes the best results Unpleasant … can have bad side effects Neutral … does nothing to promote retention and is useless as far as memory is concerned Retention

26 Your goal is to make the learning as meaningful as possible, achieving as much mastery of that learning, all in a pleasant atmosphere. All of these variables go together. Retention

27 Transfer Past learnings can assist or interfere with new learnings (this will be covered in the “Transfer” lesson module). Positive transfer …. Old learning or past experience accelerates new learning Piano  Organ Violin  Cello Negative transfer …. Old learning interferes with new learning. This is knowledge you don’t want transferred. Typewriter  Ipad Piano  Violin Retention

28 Transfer Retention is related to initial learning in that something must be learned in order to be remembered. Retention and transfer are closely related. If something is not remembered, then it cannot be transferred later when a new situation is encountered. Retention

29 Transfer A skilled instructor constantly thinks about what the students already know or have experienced. If you don’t want things to transfer, keep them apart. If there is confusion, bring them together to discuss differences. If you’ve done a good job here you will now remember that memory is increased in relation to the amount of meaning, degree of original learning, feeling tone and positive transfer. Retention

30 Modeling A model is simply a representation of learning (this will be covered further in the “Methods of Explanation” lesson module). It can be: Concrete - A plastic model of the human heart Replication - A picture, diagram, map Verbal - Paragraph, correctly completed example A good model contains all the critical attributes which distinguish it from similar things. Retention

31 Modeling Students tend to remember what they see. If the student doesn’t “see it”, they will have a much more difficult time doing it. The old adage “do as I say, not as I do” is inappropriate. When modeling, provide a variety of correct models, i.e. show the student many acceptable forms of doing something. Retention

32 Practice A successful planned practice (this has already been covered in a previous lesson module) involves determining: How much at one time? How long at one time? How often? How will students know if they are practicing correctly? Retention

33 How Much Practice The amount of practice should only be enough to gain command of a concept. The idea that the more practice, the better is not really true. Retention

34 How Often Practice needs to be “massed” at first to insure a high degree of original learning. Then, “distribute” or space the practice at regular intervals to insure retention. Retention

35 How Long Research suggests that practice should be short and intense followed by a rest or a change in activity. Students should not be asked to practice the same thing for the entire session. Retention

36 Facilitating Retention Make initial learning Meaningful Foster intent to learn well and remember – DOL Provide satisfying consequences of correct response – Feeling Tone Provide for sequential learning – Transfer Emphasize general concepts and abilities – Modeling Provide for application - Practice Retention

37 “Retention is NOT Important” The true objective is not retention …. what is really important is its byproduct: “APPLICATION” Retention

38 DOL + Practice = Retention Retention

39 Lesson Assignment Write down the following and bring to the in-class clinic sessions: State the retention formula List (6) variables of retention and a practical classroom example of each Retention

40 Retention USSF Referee Instructor CourseITIP United States Soccer Federation

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