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Tutorial 1. Eilya Torshizian PhD student and research assistant address Office Room 260-6121, Level 6, Owen G. Bld.

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Presentation on theme: "Tutorial 1. Eilya Torshizian PhD student and research assistant address Office Room 260-6121, Level 6, Owen G. Bld."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tutorial 1

2 Eilya Torshizian PhD student and research assistant address Office Room , Level 6, Owen G. Bld. Tutorial forum Economics bulletin at Facebook

3  Academic Experience ECON 721, 711, 701, 322, 212, 111 and MATHS 105, 108  Education The University of Auckland, PhD student, under supervision of Professor Arthur Grimes. The University of Tehran, MA and BA in Theoretical Economics IUST, Information Technology engineering.  Work Experience Member of the board of directors at Rateb Construction and Development Co. Chief executive officer at Exir Kish mineral water manufacturer.

4  1. Why is it desirable for a country to have a large GDP? Give an example of something that would raise GDP and yet be undesirable?

5 GDP represents the amount of money one would need to purchase one year’s worth of the economy’s production of all final goods and services. It is desirable for a country to have a large GDP because people could enjoy more goods and services.

6  GDP is not the only important measure of well-being.  For example, laws that restrict pollution cause GDP to be lower. If laws against pollution were eliminated, GDP would be higher but the pollution might make us worse off.  for example, an earthquake would raise GDP, as expenditures on clean-up, repair, and rebuilding increase.

7 -A family buys a new refrigerator -Aunt Jane buys a new house -Fisher and Paykel sells a washing machine from its stock -You buy a pizza -Transit New Zealand repaves Highway 1 -Your parents buy a bottle of Australian wine from a store in Dunedin -Nestle Australia builds a new chocolate factory in Christchurch

8  A family buys a new refrigerator Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Government purchases (G): the spending on goods and services by local, state, and federal governments

9  Aunt Jane buys a new house Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Government purchases (G): the spending on goods and services by local, state, and federal governments

10  Fisher and Paykel sells a washing machine from its stock Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Consumption increases because a washing machine is a good purchased by a household, but investment decreases because the washing machine in Fisher and Paykel’s inventory had been counted as an investment good until it was sold.

11  You buy a pizza Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Government purchases (G): the spending on goods and services by local, state, and federal governments

12  Transit New Zealand repaves Highway 1 Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Government purchases (G): the spending on goods and services by local, state, and federal governments

13  Your parents buy a bottle of Australian wine from a store in Dunedin Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Government purchases (G): the spending on goods and services by local, state, and federal governments

14  Nestle Australia builds a new chocolate factory in Christchurch Consumption (C): the spending by households on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Investment (I): the spending by firms on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including new housing. Government purchases (G): the spending on goods and services by local, state, and federal governments

15  The government purchases component of GDP does not include spending on transfer payments such as the superannuation benefit. Think about the definition of GDP; explain why transfer payments are excluded. With transfer payments, nothing is produced, so there is no contribution to GDP. GDP represents the amount of money one would need to purchase one year’s worth of the economy’s production of all final goods and services.

16  Goods and services that are not sold in markets, such as food produced and consumed at home, are generally not included in GDP. Can you think of how this might cause the numbers in the second column of table 7.3 to be misleading in a comparison of the economic well-being of New Zealand and India? Explain.

17 Average Measure InfrastructureInequality

18  Some things that contribute to well-being are not included in GDP. (Have a look at question 1)  the value of leisure  the value of a clean environment  the value of almost all activities that takes place outside of markets, such as the value of the time parents spend with their children and the value of volunteer work.

19 In countries like India, people produce and consume a fair amount of food at home that is not included in GDP. So GDP per person in India and New Zealand will differ by more than their comparative economic well-being

20  Suppose the following table records the total output and the prices for an entire economy in a country. Assume the base year in the following table is Year Price of Pizzas Qty of Pizzas Price of Mac Combo Qty of Mac Combos 2006$10240$ $12400$ $14360$15550 (a) Calculate the Nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, explain clearly why economists do not use Nominal GDP to measure economic growth. (b) Calculate the Real GDP for the years 2006, 2007 and (c) Compute the GDP Deflator for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, and explain clearly what the GDP Deflator tells you about the price level in the economy. (d) Explain fully whether or not Real GDP figures of a developed country and an underdeveloped country can be used to measure the relative prosperity of people living in those two countries in a meaningful manner.

21 (a)Calculate the Nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, explain clearly why economists do not use Nominal GDP to measure economic growth. Nominal GDP for the years: 2006 = 10* *400 = $5, = 12* *600 = $10, = 14* *550 = $13,290 Nominal GDP is not used by economists to measure economic growth, because of the distortion created by the price effect. (b)Calculate the Real GDP for the years 2006, 2007 and Real GDP for the years: 2006 = 10* *400 = $5, = 10* *600 = $8, = 10* *550 = $8,000 (c)Compute the GDP Deflator for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, and explain clearly what the GDP Deflator tells you about the price level in the economy. GDP deflator for the years: 2006 = = = The GDP deflator in this instance explains the increase in the price level.

22 (d)Explain fully whether or not Real GDP figures of a developed country and an underdeveloped country can be used to measure the relative prosperity of people living in those two countries in a meaningful manner. The real GDP figures cannot be used meaningfully to compare the relative prosperity levels of a developed and an underdeveloped country as the real GDP figure in an underdeveloped country is understated due to the inability of this statistic to capture the value of the large amount of non-market economic activities, including the black economy. This is because most activities are cash transactions and no invoices are raised, whereas in a developed country only a very small proportion of such unrecorded economic activities take place.

23 (e)The Per Capita Real GDP in New Zealand is approximately NZ$ Explain fully whether this figure is a clear indication or not of the standard of living of people living in New Zealand. (f)A recent World Bank report stated that New Zealand was well above Australia as a pleasant place to live in although the per capita Real GDP of Australia is well above that of New Zealand. Explain clearly the basis of this ranking. Year Price of Pizzas Qty of Pizzas Price of Mac Combo Qty of Mac Combos 2006$10240$ $12400$ $14360$15550

24  (e)The Per Capita Real GDP in New Zealand is approximately NZ$ Explain fully whether this figure is a clear indication or not of the standard of living of people living in New Zealand. The per capita GDP figure given in the question is only an average and fails to give any indication of the distribution of income in New Zealand. Averages can be misleading as the national cake is not divided equally amongst the population.  (f)A recent World Bank report stated that New Zealand was well above Australia as a pleasant place to live in although the per capita Real GDP of Australia is well above that of New Zealand. Explain clearly the basis of this ranking. The reason for ranking New Zealand above Australia as a pleasant place to live is based on aspects of the quality of life such as the level of crime, the amount of pollution, and the amount of leisure time that can be enjoyed by inhabitants of New Zealand in comparison with Australia. These aspects cannot be quantified in terms of dollars, but affect the quality of life in the two countries.

25  One day Barry the Barber collects $500 for haircuts. Over this day, his equipment depreciates in value by $50. Of the remaining $450, Barry sends $30 to the government as GST, pays $100 to his new employee who is an exchange student from the UK and has a work permit, takes home $220 in wages and retains $100 in his business to add new equipment in the future. From the $220 that Barry takes home, he pays $70 in income taxes. Based on this information, compute Barry’s contribution to the following measures of income:  a)Gross Domestic Product  b)Gross National Income  c)National Disposable Income

26 GDP +NCT GNP +NFIA GNDINDP +NCT NNP +NFIA NNDI - Depreciation NCT: Net Current Transfer (Immigrants, aids) NFIA: Net Factor Income from Abroad GNDI: Gross National Disposable Income

27 = GDP - $100 = 400 = GNI. a) GDP equals the dollar amount Barry collects, which is b) Gross National Product (GNP) tracks down total income of all citizens of a country = c) NNP = GNP – depreciation =$400 - $50 = $350. NNP + NCT= $350 + $0. $350 + $50 = $400. Gross National Disposable income = NDI + depreciation = National Disposable income (NDI) = $500.

28  Consider an economy that produces only one good. In year 1, the quantity produced is Q1 and the price is P1. In year 2, the quantity produced is Q2 and the price is P2. In year 3, the quantity produced is Q3 and the price is P3. Year 1 is the base year. Answer the following questions in terms of these variables, and be sure to simplify your answer if possible.  What is nominal GDP for each of these three years?  What is real GDP for each of these three years?  What is the GDP deflator for each of these three years?  What is the percentage growth rate of real GDP from year 2 to year 3?  What is the inflation rate as measured by the GDP deflator from year 2 to year 3?

29 Nominal GDP values the production of goods and services at current prices. P1Q1P2Q2P3Q3 Real GDP uses constant base - year prices to value the economy ’ s production of goods and services. The GDP deflator – calculated from the ratio of nominal to real GDP – measures the level of prices in the economy. Real GDP growth rate year 2 to 3 Inflation rate Year 2 to 3 P1Q3P1Q2 1000P2/P P3/P1 P1Q1


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