Presentation on theme: "Karen Siyuan Chen. Stimulus Any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds Reflex An involuntary response to a stimulus Eye blink."— Presentation transcript:
Stimulus Any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds Reflex An involuntary response to a stimulus Eye blink to a puff of air Conditioned reflex A learned involuntary response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus Salivate at the sound of rattling
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without learning Food Loud noise Light in eye Puff of air in eye Unconditioned response (UCR) Response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning Salivation Startle Contraction of pupil to light Eye blink response
Conditioned stimulus (CS) Neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an UCS, becomes associated with it and elicits a CR The tone which caused the salivation Conditioned response (CR) Learned response that comes to be elicited by a CS as a result of its repeated pairing with an UCS The salivation which was produced by the tone
Smell and taste are closely associated because the smell of a particular food is a signal for its taste and the physical sensation associated with eating it. You can imagine how the fresh bread smells, tastes, and its texture by viewing the picture. What happens when you smell food? Stomach rumbles due to digestive processes that typically follow the smell and taste of food Pancreas responds to counteract conditioned rise in blood sugar after a sweet taste on the tongue
Dental visits Sound of the drills and suction Smell of the office Sight of the chair and light Drug use The CS associated with drug use lead individuals to seek out those substances Counselors urge recovering addicts to avoid any cues (people, places, and things) Taste aversion Intense dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort Chemotherapy Chemotherapy treatments can result in a conditioned taste aversion Providing a “scapegoat” target can help patients maintain a proper diet
A type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to: Increase or decrease the frequency of a response Shape an entirely new response Operant Voluntary behavior that accidentally brings about a consequence Reinforcer Anything that: Follows a response and strengthens it Increases the probability that it will occur
Generalization The tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced A pigeon trained to peck a yellow disk will peck similarly-colored disks The less similar the color the lower the rate of pecking will be Discriminative stimulus A stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished Children misbehave with a grandparent because the discriminative stimuli (parents) are not present
Successive Approximations A series of gradual steps, each more similar to the final desired response than the one before Reward disruptive children for very short periods of good behavior, then expecting them to gradually work for longer and longer periods Extinction The weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of withheld reinforcement Shaking a vending machine that fails to deliver soda or candy before giving up and walking away
Positive reinforcement Any pleasant or desirable consequence that: Follows a response Increases the probability that the response will be repeated Roughly the same as a reward You smile as you walk down the street People smile back at you and say nice things You want to smile at everyone
Negative reinforcement Termination of an unpleasant condition after a response Increases the probability that the response will be repeated Turning on air conditioning to avoid the heat Tie your seatbelt and stop the bee-noise Heroin addicts will do almost anything to get another fix and avoid the pains of withdrawal
Primary Reinforcer A reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning Food Water Sleep Secondary Reinforcer Acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers Money Praise Applause
Fixed-Ratio Seller will get bonus when they reach the goal Variable-Ratio Gambling Fixed-Interval Your monthly payroll Variable-Interval Quiz in class
The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a response Can you tell me some examples of punishment in harry potter movies?
Timing Don’t kick the dog today for what it did yesterday --- it won’t connect the punishment with the misdeed. If delay is necessary, the punishment should remind them of the incident and explain why it was inappropriate. Intensity Unnecessarily severe punishment leads to adverse side effects. Purpose of punishment is NOT to vent anger but to modify behavior. If too mild, it will have no effect. Gradually increasing the intensity of the punishment causes the perpetrator to adapt and the unwanted behavior will persist. To suppress a behavior, the punishment must be more punishing than the misbehavior is rewarding. A $200 ticket is more likely to suppress speeding than a $2 ticket. Consistency Parents can not ignore misbehavior one day and punish the same act the next day. Both parents should react to the same misbehavior in the same way. An undesired response will be suppressed more effectively when the probability of punishment is high. Most people will not speed when a police car is in the rear-view mirror.
Lose weight Complete homework on time Do not waste money Not getting angry easily Make good use your spare time Attend to community service Go to church every Sundays Get up regularly in school days Do exercise in Gym