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Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry Outlin e Outlin e PowerPoint Presentation adapted from Mr. John Bergmann.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry Outlin e Outlin e PowerPoint Presentation adapted from Mr. John Bergmann."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry Outlin e Outlin e PowerPoint Presentation adapted from Mr. John Bergmann

3 Believe that life is worth living, and your belief will help create the fact. William James, American Psychologist and Philospher Whether you believe you can do a thing or believe you can’t, you are right. Henry Ford, American Car Manufacturer All through my life, the new sights of Nature made me rejoice like a child. Marie Curie, Polish-Born French Chemist Problems call forth our courage and our wisdom; indeed, they create our courage and our wisdom. it is only because of problems that we grow mentally and spiritually. It is through the pain of confronting and resolving problems that we learn. M. Scott Peck, b American Psychiatrist and Writer Don’t be afraid to take a big step if one is indicated. You can’t cross a chasm in two small jumps. David Lloyd George, British Prime Minister and Statesman

4 Chemistry is the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo…

5 …Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry with a with aChemistry Purpose

6 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac   P 15 V 23 H1H1 S 16 P 15 Ar 18 Ta 73 N7N7 The Human Element Interactive Periodic Table S 16 S 16

7 Natural Science Physical Science Earth and Space Science Life Science PhysicsChemistry GeologyAstronomyBotanyZoologyMeteorology Oceanography Ecology Genetics Natural science covers a very broad range of knowledge. Wysession, Frank, Yancopoulos, Physical Science Concepts in Action, 2004, page 4

8 Intro to Chemistry Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

9 Episode 1Episode 1 – World of Chemistry VIDEO ON DEMAND The world of chemistry is introduced by providing highlights of key sequences and themes from programs in the series. The relationships of chemistry to the other sciences and to everyday life are presented. World of Chemistry The Annenberg Film Series

10 The Six Levels of Thought Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation “Success is a journey, not a destination.” -Ben Sweetland “Successful students make mistakes, but they don’t quit. They learn from them.” -Ralph Burns “Success consist of a series of little daily efforts.” -Marie McCuillough

11 Job Skills for the Future Evaluate and Analyze Think Critically Solve Math Problems Organize and Use References Synthesize Ideas Apply Ideas to New Areas Be Creative Make Decisions with Incomplete Information Communicate in Many Modes Chemistry will develop ALL of these skills in YOU!

12 Dual Perceptions

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14 Stack of Blocks

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17 Perception of Motion

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19 A Colorful Demonstration: The Remsen Reaction Click to see VIDEO

20 Safety

21 Basic Safety Rules Use common sense. No horseplay. No unauthorized experiments. Handle chemicals/glassware with respect. Others: #1 Rule:

22 Safety Features of the Lab safety shower fire blanket fire extinguisher eye wash fume hood circuit breaker switch

23 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) gives information about a chemical -- lists “Dos” and “Don’ts;” emergency procedures --

24 Chemical Exposure a one-time exposure causes damage acute exposurechronic exposure damage occurs after repeated exposure reaction to drugs or medication e.g., smoking, asbestos

25 Government Regulation of Chemicals Chemical Stewardship Consumer Worker Environment FDA, USDA, Consumer Product Safety Commission OSHA EPA The government regulates chemicals to reduce the risk to the…

26 Chemical Burns Chemical burns on feet. Skin burned by chemicals Flammable ReactiveHealth Special

27 SAFETY in the Science Classroom Obey the safety contract –Use common sense –No unauthorized experiments –Wear safety glasses –Safety is an attitude! –Don’t take anything out of lab –Read and follow all instructions

28 the lethal dosage for 50% of the animals on which the chemical is tested LD 50 There are various ways an LD 50 can be expressed. For example, acetone has the following LD 50 s: ORL-RAT LD 50 : 5,800 mg/kg IHL-RAT LD 50 : 50,100 mg/m 3 -h SKN-RBT LD 50 : 20 g/kg

29 Example Which is more toxic? Chemical A is more toxic because less of it proves fatal to half of a given population. Chemical A: LD 50 = 3.2 mg/kg Chemical B: LD 50 = 48 mg/kg

30 Science

31 The Functions of Science pure science applied science the search for knowledge; facts using knowledge in a practical way e.g., aluminum strong lightweight good conductor

32 Science attempts to establish cause-effect relationships. 

33 risk-benefit analysis weigh pros and cons before deciding Because there are many considerations for each case, “50/50 thinking” rarely applies.

34 How does scientific knowledge advance? 1. curiosity 2. good observations 3. determination 4. persistence

35 The Scientific Method

36 ** Key: Be a good observer. observationinference involves a judgment or assumption uses the five senses

37 Types of Data Observations are also called data. qualitative data quantitative data clear liquid e.g.,e.g., descriptionsmeasurements 55 L or 83 o C

38 Parts of the Scientific Method Identify an unknown. Make a hypothesis: a testable prediction Repeatedly experiment to test hypothesis. procedure: order of events in experiment variable: any factor that could influence the result (i.e., a recipe)

39 A Scientific Experiment conclusion: must be based on the data Experiments must be controlled: they must have two set-ups that differ by only one variable

40 Scientific Law vs. Scientific Theory law: Theory of Gravity, Atomic Theory states what happens tries to explain why or how something happens -- e.g., does not change law of gravity, laws of conservation never violated -- theory: -- e.g., -- based on current evidence

41 Phlogiston Theory of Burning 1. Flammable materials contain phlogiston. 2. During burning, phlogiston is released into the air. 3. Burning stops when… …object is out of phlogiston, or …the surrounding air contains too much phlogiston. (superceded by combustion theory of burning)

42 Chemistry

43 The Beginning The Greeks believed there were four elements. early practical chemistry: household goods, weapons, soap, wine, basic medicine earthwindfire water  ~ ~  ___ 

44 Alchemy Allegedly, this substance would turn cheap metals into gold. the quest for the Philosopher’s Stone (~500 – 1300 C.E.) (the elixir, the Sorcerer’s Stone) Alchemical symbols for substances… GOLDSILVERCOPPER IRONSAND

45 transmutation: we cannot transmute elements into different elements. changing one substance into another COPPER GOLD  Philosopher’s Stone In ordinary chemical reactions…

46 Alchemy was practiced in many regions of the world, including China and the Middle East. Alchemy arrived in western Europe around the year 500 C.E. Modern chemistry evolved from alchemy.

47 Contributions of alchemists: experimental techniques new glassware information about elements developed several alloys

48 What is Chemistry? the study of matter and its changes

49 Areas of Chemistry organic physical inorganic biochemistry studies everything except carbon e.g., compounds containing metals the study of carbon- containing compounds measuring physical properties of substances the chemistry of living things e.g., the melting point of gold

50 Careers in Chemistry research (new products) production (quality control) development (manufacturing) chemical sales software engineering teaching

51 The skills you will develop by an earnest study of chemistry will help you in any career field.

52 The Scope of Chemistry pharmaceuticals nylon, polyester, rayon bulk chemical manufacturing petroleum products synthetic fibers acids, bases, fertilizers fuels, oils, greases, asphalt 1 in 10,000 new products gets FDA approval spandex, **sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) = #1 chemical

53 All fields of endeavor are affected by chemistry.

54 Government Regulation of Chemicals The government regulates chemicals to protect the… OSHA worker FDA USDA FAA CPSC consumer EPA environment

55 Manipulating Numerical Data

56 Graphs

57 Bar Graph shows how many of something are in each category # of students

58 Pie Graph shows how a whole is broken into parts Percentage of Weekly Income

59 Line Graph shows continuous change Stock Price over Time you will always use a line graph. In chemistry…

60 Elements of a “good” line graph 2. axes labeled, with units 4. use the available space 1. title 3. neat

61 Essential Math of Chemistry

62 Scientific Notation -- used to express very large or very small numbers, and/or to indicate precision (i.e., to maintain the correct number of significant figures) Form:(# from 1 to 9.999) x 10 exponent 800= 8 x 10 x 10 = 8 x = x 10 x 10 x 10 = x = = 1.4 x 10 –3

63 Put in standard form x 10 –5 = x 10 8 = 370,000, x 10 1 = x 10 –2 = Change to scientific notation. 12,340 = x = 3.69 x 10 – = 8 x 10 –3 1,000,000,000 = 1 x x = 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

64 Using the Exponent Key EXP EE

65 The EE or EXP or E key means “times 10 to the…” How to type out 6.02 x : 6EE y x x EE320y x 32 x not… or… and not… How to type out 6.02 x : 6EE WRONG! TOO MUCH WORK.

66 Also, know when to hit your (–) sign. (before the number, after the number, or either one)

67 4.3 x 10 –9 4.3 E –9or 1.2 x x But instead is written… = 1. 2EE Type this calculation in like this: This is NOT written…4.3 – –15 Calculator gives… E–15 or…

68 –6.5 x 10 – x 10 3 or x x 10 –6 (–8.7 x 10 –14 ) = 4.35 x 10 6 (1.23 x 10 –3 ) = 5.76 x 10 – x 10 –4 = 8.8 x x 3.3 x = 5.84 x 10 –13

69 Essential Math of Chemistry

70 Units must be carried into the answer, unless they cancel kg-m s2s2 5.2 kg (2.9 m) (18 s)(1.3 s) = 4.8 kg (23 s) (18 s)(37 s) = 0.57 kg s

71 Solve for x. x + y = z – y x = z – y x and y are connected by addition. Separate them using subtraction. In general, use opposing functions to separate things. The +y and –y cancel on the left, leaving us with…

72 Solve for x. x – 24 = x = 37 x and 24 are connected by subtraction. Separate them using the opposite function: addition. The –24 and +24 cancel on the left, leaving us with… Numerical Example

73 Solve for x. F = k x kk x = F k __ x and k are connected by multiplication. Separate them using the opposite function: division. () __1 k F = k x () __1 k (or) The two k’s cancel on the right, leaving us with…

74 Numerical Example Solve for x. 8 = 7 x 77 x and 7 are connected by multiplication. Separate them using the opposite function: division. () __1 7 8 = 7 x () __1 7 (or) The two 7’s cancel on the right, leaving us with… x = 8 7 __

75 Solve for x. ___ x BA = TR H ___ BAH = xTR One way to solve this is to cross-multiply. BAH = xTR Then, divide both sides by TR. The answer is… ___ BAH TR x = 1 TR () ___1 TR () ___

76 Solve for T 2, where… P 1 = 1.08 atm P 2 = 0.86 atm V 1 = 3.22 L V 2 = 1.43 L T 1 = 373 K P 1 V 1 T 2 = P 2 V 2 T 1 ____ T1T1 P1V1P1V1 = P2V2P2V2 T2T2 1 P1V1P1V1 () 1 P1V1P1V1 () T 2 = P1V1P1V1 ______ P2V2T1P2V2T1 132 T 2 = (1.08 atm)(3.22 L) _____________________ (0.86 atm)(1.43 L)(373 K) = K

77 SI Prefixes kilo-(k) 1000 deci-(d) 1 / 10 centi-(c) 1 / 100 milli-(m) 1 / 1000 Also, 1 mL = 1 cm 3 and 1 L = 1 dm 3

78 Conversion Factors and Unit Cancellation

79 How many cm are in 1.32 meters? conversion factors: equality: or 1.32 m= 132 cm 1 m = 100 cm ______1 m 100 cm We use the idea of unit cancellation to decide upon which one of the two conversion factors we choose. ______ 1 m 100 cm () ______ 1 m 100 cm (or 0.01 m = 1 cm)

80 How many m is 8.72 cm? conversion factors: equality: or 8.72 cm= m 1 m = 100 cm ______1 m 100 cm Again, the units must cancel. ______ 1 m 100 cm () ______ 1 m 100 cm

81 How many kilometers is 15,000 decimeters? 15,000 dm= 1.5 km () ____ 1,000 m 1 km 10 dm 1 m () ______

82 How many seconds is 4.38 days? = 378,432 s 1 h 60 min24 h 1 d1 min 60 s ____ ()() () _____ 4.38 d 3.78 x 10 5 s If we are accounting for significant figures, we would change this to…

83 Simple Math with Conversion Factors

84 Find area of rectangle. A = L. W = (4.6 cm)(9.1 cm) 9.1 cm = 42cm 2. cm 4.6 cm Convert to m cm 2 () ______ 100 cm 1 m 2 = m 2 Convert to mm cm 2 () ______ 1 cm 10 mm 2 = 4200 mm 2 cm. cm

85 For the rectangular solid: Find volume. Length = 14.2 cm Width = 8.6 cm Height = 21.5 cm V = L. W. H = (14.2 cm)(8.6 cm)(21.5 cm) =2600cm 3

86 Convert to mm cm 3 () ______ 1 cm 10 mm 3 = 2,600,000 mm 3 = 2.6 x 10 6 mm 3 mm and cm differ by a factor of………. mm 2 “ cm 2 “ “ “ “ “ ………. mm 3 “ cm 3 “ “ “ “ “ ………

87 Basic Concepts in Chemistry

88 chemical: any substance that takes part in, or occurs as a result of, a chemical reaction All matter can be considered to be chemicals or mixtures of chemicals. chemical reaction: a rearrangement of atoms such that… “what you end up with” differs from “what you started with” products reactants

89 methane + oxygen  + H 2 O(g) carbon dioxide O 2 (g)CO 2 (g)CH 4 (g)+  water+ 22 

90 NaOH(aq) water Na(s)H 2 O(l)H 2 (g)2 sodium 22 hydrogen sodium hydroxide +  + +  + 

91 Law of Conservation of Mass total mass of productsof reactants P mass = R mass = synthesis: taking small molecules and putting them together, usually in many steps, to make something more complex JENNY

92 How many feet is inches? applicable conversion factors: equality: or X ft = in= 1 ft = 12 in ______1 ft 12 in Again, the units must cancel. () ____ 3.28 ft 1 ft 12 in ______ 1 ft 12 in

93 KEYS - Intro. to Chemistry WorksheetWorksheet - vocabulary Worksheet Worksheet - material safety data sheet (acetone) material safety data sheetacetone Worksheetmaterial safety data sheetacetone ActivityActivity - checkbook activity Activity WorksheetWorksheet - graphing graphing Worksheetgraphing WorksheetWorksheet - real life chemistry real life chemistry Worksheetreal life chemistry WorksheetWorksheet - conversion factors conversion factors Worksheetconversion factors WorksheetWorksheet - scientific notation scientific notation Worksheetscientific notation WorksheetWorksheet - metric article (questions) metric article (questions) Worksheetmetric article (questions) WorksheetWorksheet - significant digits significant digits Worksheetsignificant digits WorksheetWorksheet - math review Worksheet Worksheet - math of chemistry math of chemistry Worksheetmath of chemistry (general) Outline (general) Outline WorksheetWorksheet - article on the metric system article on the metric system Worksheetarticle on the metric system LabLab – introduction to qualitative analysis introduction to qualitative analysis Labintroduction to qualitative analysis TextbookTextbook - questions questions Textbookquestions

94 LabLab – introduction to qualitative analysis Lab Resources - Intro. to Chemistry WorksheetWorksheet - vocabulary Worksheet Worksheet - material safety data sheet (acetone) (acetone) Worksheet(acetone) ActivityActivity - checkbook activity Activity WorksheetWorksheet - graphing Worksheet Worksheet - real life chemistry Worksheet Worksheet - conversion factors Worksheet Worksheet - scientific notation Worksheet Worksheet - metric article (questions) Worksheet Worksheet - significant digits Worksheet Worksheet - math review Worksheet Worksheet - math of chemistry Worksheet (general) Outline (general)general Outlinegeneral WorksheetWorksheet - article on the metric system Worksheet TextbookTextbook - questions Textbook Episode 1Episode 1 - The World of Chemistry Episode 4Episode 4 - Modeling The Unseen Episode 3 Episode 3 – Measurement: The Foundation of Chemistry


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