Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry OutlineUnit 1 Introduction to ChemistryPowerPoint Presentation adapted from Mr. John Bergmann
2 Problems call forth our courage and our wisdom; indeed, they create our courage and our wisdom.it is only because of problems that we grow mentallyand spiritually. It is through the pain ofconfronting and resolving problemsthat we learn.M. Scott Peck, b American Psychiatrist and WriterWhether you believe you can do a thingor believe you can’t,you are right.Henry Ford, American Car ManufacturerDon’t be afraid to take a big stepif one is indicated.You can’t cross a chasmin two small jumps.David Lloyd George, British Prime Minister and StatesmanI use this slide on the first day of class. Students realize that this class will be different.All through my life,the new sights of Naturemade me rejoice like a child.Marie Curie, Polish-Born French ChemistBelieve that life is worth living,and your belief will help create the fact.William James, American Psychologist and Philospher2
3 Chemistry is the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo… Image courtesy:Introduction to Chemistry1. What is chemistry?2. What are the four parts of the scientific method?3. What is a control experiment?4. Describe the three types of variables.5. Compare laws, theories, and hypotheses.6. What is the only way to prove a hypothesis true?7. Why do laws and theories evolve?8. What is the last step of solving any problem?9. What is measurement?10. What is a dimension?11. What is a unit?12. What is the difference between fundamental and derived units?13. Why is the standard for mass, in the SI, unique?14. What is the difference between mass and moles?15. Is density a fundamental or derived unit?16. How is a conversion factor made?17. How is one unit converted to another?18. What is precision?19. What do the significant figures of a measurement indicate?20. In what situation are trailing zeros always significant.21. Numbers in scientific notation have the basic form A x10B. What is the range of A?22. What kind of number will have a negative B?23. Why do scientists use graphs?24. What variables go on which of the axes of a graph?25. How do direct and inverse relationships differ?26. Describe the graph of a direct linear relationship.27. Describe the graph of an inverse parabolic relationship.28. What is the slope of a horizontal line?29. In an experiment the independent variable does not change. What is the slope of the graph?30. During a lab experiment the temperature of the gas in a balloon is varied and the volume is measured.Which of the two variables will be graphed on the horizontal axis and which will be graphed on the vertical axis?31. What kind of relationship exists between P and z in this equation? P = mv/z23
4 …Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistrywith aPurpose4
5 P V H S S P Ar Ta N S The Human Element H He H Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Interactive Periodic TableP15V23H1S16S16P15Ar18Ta73N7S16H1He2H1The Human Element1Li3Be4B5C6N7O8F9Ne102Na11Mg12Al13Si14P15S16Cl17Ar183K19Ca20Sc21Ti22V23Cr24Mn25Fe26Co27Ni28Cu29Zn30Ga31Ge32As33Se34Br35Kr364Rb37Sr38Y39Zr40Nb41Mo42Tc43Ru44Rh45Pd46Ag47Cd48In49Sn50Sb51Te52I53Xe545Cs55Ba56Hf72Ta73W74Re75Os76Ir77Pt78Au79Hg80Tl81Pb82Bi83Po84At85Rn866*A periodic table by itself is not that interesting. It is when we add the "human element", i.e. you and me, that chemistry becomes interesting.And just like that, the laws of chemistry change. A world that includes the Human Element, along with hydrogen, oxygen and other elements, is a very different world indeed. Suddenly, chemistry is put to work solving human problems. Bonds are formed between aspirations and commitments. And the energy released from reactions fuels a boundless spirit that will make the planet a safer, cleaner, more comfortable place for generations to come. A world that welcomes change is about to meet the element of change: the Human Element.By itself, a human body is worth very little (perhaps $5.00 as elements). When we look at the incredible enzymes and hormones in the body we can see we are worth ~millions of dollars.Fr87Ra88Rf104Db105Sg106Bh107Hs108Mt1097WLa57Ce58Pr59Nd60Pm61Sm62Eu63Gd64Tb65Dy66Ho67Er68Tm69Yb70Lu71Ac89Th90Pa91U92Np93Pu94Am95Cm96Bk97Cf98Es99Fm100Md101No102Lr1035
6 Earth and Space Science Natural SciencePhysical ScienceEarth and Space ScienceLife SciencePhysicsChemistryGeologyAstronomyBotanyZoologyMeteorologyOceanographyEcologyGeneticsScience can be broken into social science (social studies, political science, psychology) and natural science. This slides shows some of the diverse areas of natural science.Natural science covers a very broad range of knowledge.Wysession, Frank, Yancopoulos, Physical Science Concepts in Action, 2004, page 46
8 World of Chemistry The Annenberg Film Series VIDEO ON DEMANDEpisode 1 – World of ChemistryThe world of chemistry is introduced by providing highlights of key sequences and themes fromprograms in the series. The relationships of chemistry to the other sciences and to everyday lifeare presented.Video 01: World of Chemistry The relationships of chemistry to the other sciences and to everyday life are presented. (added 2006/10/08) World of Chemistry >Journey through the exciting world of chemistry with Nobel laureate Roald Hoffman as your guide.The foundations of chemical structures and their behavior are explored through computer animation,demonstrations, and on-site footage at working industrial and research labs. Distinguished scientistsdiscuss yesterday’s breakthroughs and today’s challenged.Produced by the University of Maryland and the Educational Film Center.Released on cassette: Fall The Annenberg/ / CPB Collection LEARNER8
9 The Six Levels of Thought EvaluationThe Six Levels of ThoughtSynthesisAnalysis“Success is a journey, not a destination.”-Ben SweetlandApplication“Successful students make mistakes,but they don’t quit. They learn from them.”-Ralph BurnsOur goal is to be able to do synthesis and evaluation of data. We need to begin with simple fact and knowledge recall and build our way up the cognitive ladder.This requires dedication, memorization, problem-solving and hard work. You will fail at times and must not give up - continue learning and questioning your entire life.Do you think there are "good chemicals" and "bad chemicals"? If so, how do they differ?Chemicals are not "good" or "evil". How we use them determines that.e.g. water to a man that is dehydrating in a desert is good while holding someone under water for too long is evil (drowning them).Comprehension“Success consist of a series oflittle daily efforts.”-Marie McCuilloughKnowledge9
10 Job Skills for the Future Evaluate and AnalyzeThink CriticallySolve Math ProblemsOrganize and Use ReferencesSynthesize IdeasApply Ideas to New AreasBe CreativeMake Decisions with Incomplete InformationCommunicate in Many ModesSome of you may ask the question “Why do I have to study chemistry? I don’t plan to be a chemist when I grow up!”My intention is not to make you into a chemist in one year. I want to explain some of the concepts fundamental to chemistry. This will help to to learn about the world around you – and may even help you later in life. In learning chemistry, you will be required to do many things (listed on the slide). These are skills that you must use in the ‘real-world’ everyday. Your problem solving, math and organizational skills will improve by studying chemistry.Chemistry will develop ALL of these skills in YOU!10
11 Dual PerceptionsYour experience of learning chemistry maybe somewhat like looking at this picture that tests your perspective.You see either two faces looking at each other or a vase.Sometimes your perception may be that chemistry is challenging, while a short time later your attitude may be that chemistry is easy and fun.You walk into this class having heard stories about it from your friends, siblings or parents that may be similar or different to what you actually experience in the class.They may have had a poor experience in high school chemistry and make you nervous about the class: or they may have had a fantastic experience and you are thrilled to be in my chemistry class.11
12 Dual PerceptionsYour experience of learning chemistry maybe somewhat like looking at this picture that tests your perspective.Sometimes your perception may be that chemistry is challenging, while a short time later your attitude may bethat chemistry is easy and fun.12
13 Stack of BlocksThis model appear to have three arms. Yet, we know it would be impossible to create an actual object like this picture. Models have limitations - as by their general nature, models are simplifications of complex situations. Yet it is in this simplification that we gain understanding. We need to be careful to not over-simplify and then apply the oversimplification to the real world.13
14 What color do the dots appear What color do the dots appear? All the dots are white and DO NOT change color. Your perception is that they are flickering black / gray / white.14
15 This image looks 3-D and appears to waver across the page. 15
18 A Colorful Demonstration: The Remsen Reaction Click to seeVIDEOIra Remson ( ) is renowned as one of the most influential American chemists and educators in the 19th century.Demonstration can be found atMetallic Copper + Concentrated Nitric Acid I adapted this lecture experiment from the "Coin-Operated Reaction" developed by Ron Perkins. I have made video records of a few lecture demonstrations, not to replace doing them in class, but rather so students can go back and review the experiments later in the year. I wanted an interesting system with which to make observations on the first day of class. I also wanted to give students an opportunity to explain what they saw in a logical manner. This system is rich with ideas such as gas laws, air pressure, complex ions, oxidizing acids, oxidation reduction, and gas solubility in water. What You Do...To a 500 mL Florence flask, add about 50 mL of concentrated nitric acid. Place a coil of copper wire into the acid and stopper with a one-holed rubber stopper fitted with a long tube. The end of the tube is placed into a large container filled with water. (I use a plastic aquarium.) As soon as the CuO contacts the HNO3(conc) the red-brown NO2(g) forms.What You See...Many changes occur during this demonstration. When the copper wire (or use two pre-1982 pennies) is added to the colorless nitric acid, the solution turns green and a large amount of red-brown gas is formed. The air being displaced by the gas formation can be seen bubbling through the water. The flask gets VERY warm. When enough gas is formed, it bubbles through the water (keep the liquid stirred so most of it will dissolve. The gas that makes it to the top is noxious. When the water siphons back into the flask, the blue Cu(H2O)42+ forms.Later...The gas in the flask begins to cool and therefore contracts. (I am reading my Ira Remsen story and allow students to notice the change.) As the pressure inside the flask decreases, the outside air pressure begins to push the water back toward the original flask. In addition, the red-brown gas dissolves in the water. Eventually, the water rushes into the flask, the solution turns characteristic blue, and the red-brown gas disappears as it is dissolved.The Set Up...Equipment:500 mL Florence flaskring standlarge ring placed below the flasksmall ring that fits over the neck of the flaskone-hole rubber stopper60 cm glass tubinglarge container of waterThe glass tube is bent in such a way as to connect the top of the flask with the bottom of the water container. The water in the container can be stirred by hand or with a magnetic stirrer. It needs to be stirred, however, or else the NO2 gas collects above the liquid (as it did when I took this picture...whew!).The Chemistry...Oxidation of copper metal with a strong oxidizing agent, conc. nitric acid.In a classic experiment, copper metal is turned into copper (II) ion while the nitrogen (V) in the nitrate ion becomes nitrogen (IV) in the nitrogen dioxide gas.Charles' LawAs the temperature from the reaction warms the gas, it expands. Later, as it cools, the gas contracts.Nonmetal oxides are acid anhydrides (also link to acid rain)Although the nitrogen dioxide gas is noxious and toxic, it dissolves readily in water and make the solution acidic. This can be shown by adding a little indicator to the water and making the water slightly basic before the copper is added to the acid.Air pressureAs the pressure in the flask is decreased as it cools, the outside pressure pushes the water up the tubing toward the flask. The nitrogen dioxide gas is not pulling the water in.Descriptive chemistry--copper solutions are green and blueThe colored solutions come from complexes of copper (II) ion in solution. Aqueous copper ion is blue, Cu(H2O)42+ The green must be copper surrounded by nitrates(?)Discussion...THE CHEMISTRY LABORATORY: A LESSON IN SAFETYAbout 100 years ago, the Chairperson of the Chemistry Department at Johns Hopkins University, and one of the pioneers of chemical education in America, Ira Remsen, wrote the following: (During this demonstration I read the reminiscence by Ira Remson quoted in Bassam Shakhashiri's demonstration book.)While reading a textbook of chemistry I came upon the statement, "nitric acid acts upon copper." I was getting tired of reading such absurd stuff and I was determined to see what this meant. Copper was more or less familiar to me, for copper cents were then in use. I had seen a bottle marked nitric acid on a table in the doctor's office where I was then "doing time." I did not know its peculiarities, but the spirit of adventure was upon me. Having nitric acid and copper, I had only to learn what the words "act upon" meant. The statement "nitric acid acts upon copper" would be more than mere words.All was still. In the interest of knowledge I was even willing to sacrifice one of the few copper cents then in my possession. I put one of them on the table, opened the bottle marked nitric acid, poured some of the liquid on the copper and prepared to make an observation. But what was this wonderful thing which I beheld? The cent was already changed and it was no small change either. A green-blue liquid foamed and fumed over the cent and over the table. The air in the neighborhood of the performance became colored dark red. A great colored cloud arose. This was disagreeable and suffocating. How should I stop this?I tried to get rid of the objectionable mess by picking it up and throwing it out of the window. I learned another fact. Nitric acid not only acts upon copper, but it acts upon fingers. The pain led to another unpremeditated experiment. I drew my fingers across my trousers and another fact was discovered. Nitric acid acts upon trousers. Taking everything into consideration, that was the most impressive experiment and relatively probably the most costly experiment I have ever performed... It was a revelation to me. It resulted in a desire on my part to learn more about that remarkable kind of action. Plainly, the only way to learn about it was to see its results, to experiment, to work in a laboratory.The description above is very amusing and expresses an enthusiasm for chemistry that we all should strive for. Ira Remsen also recognized the vital importance of the laboratory experience in chemistry. However, he was very fortunate that this particular experiment did not have dire consequences. Experiments should never be conducted using the methods described. List all the violations of good safety practice in the experiment described by Ira Remsen and suggest some safer approaches to finding out what was meant by the words "acts upon".Safety and Disposal...The solution is highly acidic. I pour it out into a large beaker or battery jar and add excess sodium carbonate. The carbon dioxide bubbles indicate neutralization and the resulting copper carbonate precipitate is filtered, placed in a baggie and thrown away. The neutralized filtrate can be disposed of as you would any simple salt solution. Procedures may vary from location to location.References: This demonstration is based on one shown by Ron Perkins called the "Coin Operated Demonstration" Shakhishiri, B.Z. "Chemical Demonstrations Volume 1--A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry"; The University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin, 1983 Getman, F.H. "The Life of Ira Remsem"; Journal of Chemical Education: Easton, Pennsylvania, 1940; pp9-10.A Colorful Demonstration: The Remsen Reaction18
20 Basic Safety Rules #1 Rule: Use common sense. Others: No horseplay. No unauthorized experiments.Handle chemicals/glassware with respect.
21 Safety Features of the Lab safety showerfire blanketfire extinguishereye washfume hoodcircuit breaker switch
22 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) --gives informationabout a chemical-- lists “Dos” and “Don’ts;”emergency procedures
23 a one-time exposure causes damage Chemical Exposureacute exposure chronic exposurea one-time exposure causes damagedamage occurs after repeated exposuree.g.,reaction to drugsor medicationsmoking,asbestos
24 Government Regulation of Chemicals The government regulates chemicals to reducethe risk to the…ConsumerFDA, USDA, Consumer Product Safety CommissionWorkerGOVERNMENT REGULATION OF CHEMICALSThalidomide was a drug given to lessen the effects of morning sickness to pregnant woman in the 1960’s.It never was proven safe and effective (efficacy) to the Food and Drug Administration in the United States.Only two cases of birth defects, thalidomide related, were reported in the United States. The women who had the children with the truncated limb formation were “jet setters” and obtained the thalidomide over seas.Internet Access to the Center for Disease Control, CDC,and the Food and Drug Administration, FDAThere is a tremendous amount of trivial information on the Internet. It also provides a direct, quick connection to government agencies and other sources of hard factual information. This is an exercise in using the Internet to learn about the power of the Internet. Simultaneously, you will have an opportunity to learn what health agencies like the FDA and the CDC say about health risks and smoking.The Internet pages typically have interactive or “hot” buttons. The most common interactive spots are underlined text items. Sometimes there are images that are buttons. Usually they are identified with “Click here” messages. You can’t go wrong by clicking on an item to find out if is active. ONE CAUTION, there is a time delay between the time you click and the time when the system responds and connects you. You need some patience here. Computers have gotten faster, but people are asking the computer to do more. You probably already know you can’t rush the machines. This is a chance to surf the net. Go ahead; get your feet wet.THE CDC home page and the FDAPublic agencies like the Center for Disease Control, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration, FDA, can be accessed through the Internet. The CDC page on tobacco risks can be reached by using the following uniform resource locator (URL). Your assignment is to open this page. The site will give you data to answer the questions on the report sheet.OVERVIEWYour are to find out what the CDC says about the number of deaths annually in the United States that are said to be caused by smoking.In addition, you are to open the active line that gives the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed regulations on tobacco by clicking on the underlined FDA entry. If you have trouble, you can use the following URL for the FDA site. Your are supposed to record your opinion of the FDA proposals on tobacco regulation and give a reason for your opinion.Name _____________________________________Hour _____ Date _________Use the following URL to answer these questions.What is the Center for Disease Control’s estimate of the number of deaths in the United States that are annually caused by tobacco? Does this seem like a large number to you? Why?Use the following URL to answer this question.What is your opinion of the regulations proposed by the FDA? Would you endorse these proposals? Explain.Give the URL for a interesting site you found while doing this exercise.What makes this site noteworthy?Internet Access to the Environmental Protection Agency, EPAHealth Risk: EPA Office of Air and Radiation, OARThe issue of health risk and air pollution concerns all of us. Frequently people assume that air pollution is only a problem in big cities like New York city or Los Angeles. It may come as a surprise, but even cities in the Rock Mountains have air pollution problems. The Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, provides some basic information about risks ar the URL given in this exercise.The EPA page on Air Pollution and Health RiskThe EPA page on Air Pollution and Health Risk can be reached using the following uniform resource locator (URL).You can find answers to the following questions at this URL.What are the attributes of risks that are classes as more serious and of greatest concern?What are the attributes of risks that are classes as less serious and of lesser concern?According to the EPA Health Risk is the probability, or chance that exposure to a hazardous substance will make you sick. What are the two factors that are used to estimate risk?What actions does the EPA recommend to reduce your exposure to hazards?OSHAEnvironmentEPAChemical Stewardship24
25 Chemical Burns Skin burned by chemicals Chemical burns on feet. FlammableReactiveHealthSpecialChemical BurnsChemical burns on feet.Skin burned by chemicals25
26 SAFETY in the Science Classroom Obey the safety contractUse common senseNo unauthorized experimentsWear safety glassesSafety is an attitude!Don’t take anything out of labRead and follow all instructionsGo over Safety Contract with students. Link for copy of safety contract:26
27 LD50the lethal dosage for 50% of the animals on which the chemical is testedThere are various ways an LD50 can be expressed. For example, acetone has the following LD50s:ORL-RAT LD50: 5,800 mg/kgIHL-RAT LD50: 50,100 mg/m3-hSKN-RBT LD50: 20 g/kg
28 Example Chemical A: LD50 = 3.2 mg/kg Chemical B: LD50 = 48 mg/kg Which is more toxic?Chemical A is more toxic because less of it proves fatal to half of a given population.
35 ** Key: Be a good observer. observation inferenceuses the fivesensesinvolves a judgmentor assumption
36 Observations are also called data. Types of DataObservations are also called data.qualitative data quantitative data--descriptions--measurementse.g.,clear liquide.g.,55 L or 83oC
37 Parts of the Scientific Method Identify an unknown.Make a hypothesis:a testable predictionRepeatedly experiment to testhypothesis.procedure: order of events inexperiment(i.e., a recipe)variable:any factor that couldinfluence the result
38 A Scientific Experiment Experiments must be controlled:they must have two set-upsthat differ by only one variableconclusion: must be based on the data
39 Scientific Law vs. Scientific Theory states what happens--does not change--never violated-- e.g.,law of gravity,laws of conservationtheory:-- e.g.,--tries to explain why orhow something happensbased on current evidenceTheory of Gravity,Atomic Theory
40 Phlogiston Theory of Burning 1. Flammable materials contain phlogiston.2. During burning, phlogiston is releasedinto the air.3. Burning stops when……object is out of phlogiston, or…the surrounding air containstoo much phlogiston.(superceded by combustion theory of burning)
42 The Greeks believed there were four elements. The Beginningearly practical chemistry:household goods, weapons,soap, wine, basic medicineThe Greeks believed therewere four elements.~D___DD___earth wind fire water
43 Allegedly, this substance would turn cheap metals into gold. Alchemy(~500 – 1300 C.E.)the quest for the Philosopher’s Stone(the elixir, the Sorcerer’s Stone)Allegedly, this substance would turncheap metals into gold.Alchemical symbols for substances…. . .. ..GOLDSILVERCOPPERIRONSAND
44 changing one substance into another transmutation:changing one substanceinto anotherCOPPERGOLDPhilosopher’sStonewe cannottransmute elements into different elements.In ordinary chemical reactions…
45 Alchemy was practiced in many regions of the world, including China and the Middle East.Alchemy arrived in western Europearound the year 500 C.E.Modern chemistry evolved from alchemy.
46 Contributions of alchemists: experimental techniques new glassware information about elementsdeveloped several alloys
47 What is Chemistry?the study of matterand its changes
48 Areas of Chemistry organic biochemistry the study of carbon- containingcompoundsthe chemistry ofliving thingsphysicalinorganicmeasuring physicalproperties ofsubstancesstudies everythingexcept carbone.g., compoundscontaining metalse.g., the meltingpoint of gold
49 Careers in Chemistry research (new products) production (quality control)development (manufacturing)chemical salessoftware engineeringteaching
50 The skills you will develop by an earnest study of chemistry will help you in anycareer field.
51 The Scope of Chemistry bulk chemical manufacturing acids, bases, fertilizers**sulfuric acid (H2SO4) = #1 chemicalpetroleum productsfuels, oils, greases, asphaltpharmaceuticals1 in 10,000 new productsgets FDA approvalsynthetic fibersnylon, polyester, rayon,spandex
52 are affected by chemistry. All fields of endeavorare affected by chemistry.
53 Government Regulation of Chemicals The governmentregulates chemicalsto protect the…workerOSHAenvironmentFDAUSDAFAACPSCEPAconsumer
61 Scientific Notation-- used to express very large or very small numbers, and/or to indicate precision(i.e., to maintain the correct number of significant figures)Form: (# from 1 to 9.999) x 10exponent800 = 8 x 10 x 10= 8 x 1022531 = x 10 x 10 x 10= x 103== 1.4 x 10–3
62 Put in standard form.1.87 x 10–5 =3.7 x 108 = 370,000,0007.88 x 101 = 78.82.164 x 10–2 =Change to scientific notation.12,340 = x 1040.369 = 3.69 x 10–10.008 = 8 x 10–31,000,000,000 = 1 x 1096.02 x 1023 =602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
69 Units must be carried into the answer, unless they cancel.5.2 kg (2.9 m)(18 s)(1.3 s)=kg-ms20.644.8 kg (23 s)(18 s)(37 s)=kgs0.57
70 x + y = z x + y = z – y – y x = z – y Solve for x. x and y are connected by addition. Separate them using subtraction. In general, use opposing functions to separate things.x + y = z– y– yThe +y and –y cancel on the left,x = z – yleaving us with…
71 Numerical Example x – 24 = 13 x – 24 = 13 +24 +24 x = 37 Solve for x. x and 24 are connected by subtraction. Separate them using the opposite function: addition.x – 24 = 13+24+24The –24 and +24 cancel on the left,leaving us with…x = 37
72 ( ) F = k x __ 1 k F = k x (or) F = k x k x = F k __ Solve for x. x and k are connected by multiplication. Separate them using the opposite function: division.(or)F = k xkThe two k’s cancel on the right,leaving us with…x =Fk__
73 ( ) Numerical Example 8 = 7 x __ 1 7 8 = 7 x (or) 8 = 7 x 7 x = 8 7 __ Solve for x.8 = 7 x()__178 = 7 xx and 7 are connected by multiplication. Separate them using the opposite function: division.(or)8 = 7 x7The two 7’s cancel on the right,leaving us with…x =87__
74 ( ) ___ x BA = TR H BAH = xTR 1 TR ___ BAH = xTR ___ BAH TR x = Solve for x.___xBA=TRHOne way to solve this is to cross-multiply.BAH = xTR1TR()___Then, divide both sides by TR.BAH = xTR___BAHTRx =The answer is…
78 ( ) ______ How many cm are in 1.32 meters? equality: 1 m = 100 cm (or 0.01 m = 1 cm)conversion factors:______1 m100 cm______1 m100 cmor()______1 m100 cm1.32 m= cmWe use the idea of unit cancellationto decide upon which one of the twoconversion factors we choose.
79 Again, the units must cancel. How many m is 8.72 cm?equality:1 m = 100 cmconversion factors:______1 m100 cm______1 m100 cmor()______1 m100 cm8.72 cm= mAgain, the units must cancel.
80 ( ) ( ) ____ ______ How many kilometers is 15,000 decimeters? 10 dm 1 km15,000 dm= km
81 How many seconds is 4.38 days? ____()()_____()____24 h1 d1 h60 min1 min60 s4.38 d= 378,432 sIf we are accounting for significant figures, we would change this to…3.78 x 105 s
87 “what you started with” chemical:any substance that takes part in,or occurs as a result of,a chemical reactionAll matter can be considered to bechemicals or mixtures of chemicals.chemical reaction: a rearrangement ofatoms such that…“what you end up with”differs from“what you started with”productsreactants
90 Law of Conservation of Mass total mass total massof products of reactants=Pmass = Rmasssynthesis: taking smallmolecules and puttingthem together, usuallyin many steps, to makesomething more complexJENNY
91 Again, the units must cancel. How many feet is inches?equality:1 ft = 12 inapplicable conversion factors:______1 ft12 in______1 ft12 inor()____1 ft12 in3.28 ftX ft = in=Again, the units must cancel.
92 KEYS - Intro. to Chemistry Worksheet - vocabularyWorksheet - material safety data sheet (acetone)Activity - checkbook activityWorksheet - graphingWorksheet - real life chemistryWorksheet - conversion factorsWorksheet - scientific notationWorksheet - metric article (questions)Worksheet - significant digitsWorksheet - math reviewWorksheet - math of chemistryWorksheet - article on the metric systemTextbook - questionsLab – introduction to qualitative analysisOutline (general)
93 Resources - Intro. to Chemistry Worksheet - vocabularyWorksheet - material safety data sheet (acetone)Activity - checkbook activityWorksheet - graphingWorksheet - real life chemistryWorksheet - conversion factorsWorksheet - scientific notationWorksheet - metric article (questions)Video 01: World of Chemistry The relationships of chemistry to the other sciences and to everyday life are presented. (added 2006/10/08) World of Chemistry >Video 03: Measurement: the Foundation of Chemistry The distinction between accuracy and precision and its importance in commerce and science are explained. (added 2006/10/08) World of Chemistry >Video 04: Modeling the Unseen Models are used to explain phenomena that are beyond the realm of ordinary perception. (added 2006/10/08) World of Chemistry >Journey through the exciting world of chemistry with Nobel laureate Roald Hoffman as your guide.The foundations of chemical structures and their behavior are explored through computer animation,demonstrations, and on-site footage at working industrial and research labs. Distinguished scientistsdiscuss yesterday’s breakthroughs and today’s challenged.Produced by the University of Maryland and the Educational Film Center.Released on cassette: Fall The Annenberg/ / CPB Collection LEARNEREpisode 1 - The World of ChemistryWorksheet - significant digitsEpisode 3 – Measurement:The Foundation of ChemistryWorksheet - math reviewEpisode 4 - Modeling The UnseenWorksheet - math of chemistryWorksheet - article on the metric systemTextbook - questionsLab – introduction to qualitative analysisOutline (general)