Presentation on theme: "Keith Maddox Department of Psychology Tufts University"— Presentation transcript:
1Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination: A Social Psychological Perspective Keith MaddoxDepartment of PsychologyTufts UniversityUniversity of Texas at AustinNovember 3, 2011
2Overview Definitions: Who is Biased? Explicit & Implicit Associations Social Psychology / Social CognitionStereotypes, Prejudice, and DiscriminationWho is Biased? Explicit & Implicit AssociationsDemonstrationHow Bias Affects UsPerceiver and Target PerspectivesConclusion
3DEFINING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY DefinitionsDEFINING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
4Definitions Social Psychology Social Cognition The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context.It’s all in the Method, (A)ffect, (B)ehavior, and (C)ognitionReal or imagined presence of other peopleSocial CognitionThe study of how people make sense of themselves and othersFocus on process in addition to contentInformed from research in cognitive psychology
5Tenets of Social Psychology The Social Construction of RealityThe way a person construes a person situation dictates our thoughts, feelings, and behaviorThe Determinants of BehaviorPerson × Situation = BehaviorThe Power of the SituationSituations often have a large, underappreciated influence on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviorPersonality is often overemphasized
6Pick a number... Pick a number between 1 and 9 Subtract 5 Multiply by 3Square the numberAdd the digitsIf number is less than 5, add 5 to it. If the number is greater than 5, subtract 4Take the absolute valueMultiply by 2Subtract 6Availability Heuristic
7Pick a number...Map your number to its corresponding letter in the alphabet (A=1, B=2, C=3…)Pick the name of a country that begins with that letterTake the second letter of that country and pick a mammal that begins with it.Think of a common color of that animal
8Grey Elephant from Denmark Brown Orangutan from the Dominican RepublicYellow or Orange Jaguar from Djbouti
9WTF?!? The Availability Heuristic Countries: Mammals: Colors Making judgments based on the ease with which information comes to mind.Countries:Denmark, Dominican Republic, DjboutiMammals:Elephant, Orangutan , JaguarColorsGrey, Brown, Orange
10The ABCs of SP&D Stereotypes (C) Prejudice (A) Discrimination (B) Endorsed or unendorsed knowledge about the attributes associated with a group of people.Prejudice (A)An positive or negative attitude toward others based on group membership.Discrimination (B)Unjustifiable negative behavior toward others based on group membership.
11EXPLICIT & IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS Who Is Biased?EXPLICIT & IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS
12Two “Modes” of (Social) Cognition AUTOMATIC PROCESSINGCONTROLLED PROCESSINGFastUnconsciousMandatoryEfficientSlowConsciousOptionalEffortful
13MEASURING IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS An ExampleMEASURING IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS
18LEFT side if UNPLEASANT RIGHT side if PLEASANT cancerhealthcorpsediamondtruthdevilassaulttriumphglorybrutaltalentagonykindnessfamilydivorcestinkpleasuretorturebombpeaceLEFT side ifUNPLEASANTRIGHT side ifPLEASANT
19LEFT side if BLACK name RIGHT side if WHITE name SARAAIESHAMEREDITHKATIESHEREENBOBBIE-SUETAWANDANIKISHAAMANDAMEGANMALIKALATOYAWENDYTEMEKARACHELLASHANDACOLLEENKIRSTINTAMEISHAEBONYLEFT side ifBLACK nameRIGHT side ifWHITE name
20LEFT side if UNPLEASANT or BLACK name RIGHT side if PLEASANT or WENDYhealthLAURENdiamondAIESHAdevilSHARISEtriumphLINDAbrutalLATOYAagonySHANEKAfamilyKATIEstinkHEATHERtortureLASHELLEpeaceLEFT side ifUNPLEASANTorBLACK nameRIGHT side ifPLEASANTorWHITE name
21LEFT side if UNPLEASANT RIGHT side if PLEASANT truthuglyassaultcheerglorycancerhealthcorpsediamondfilthtalentdivorcestinkpleasuretorturepollutepeaceagonydiplomarainbowLEFT side ifUNPLEASANTRIGHT side ifPLEASANT
22LEFT side if WHITE name RIGHT side if BLACK name AIESHALASHELLEAMANDAHEATHERTEMEKABETSYSHEREENLAKISHAELLENSARAMALIKAYOLANDALAURENTANISHADONNAEBONYSTEPHANIEEMILYNICHELLETAWANDALEFT side ifWHITE nameRIGHT side ifBLACK name
23LEFT side if UNPLEASANT or WHITE name RIGHT side if PLEASANT or AMBERhealthCOURTNEYdiamondTEMEKAdevilSHANIQUAtriumphELLENbrutalLATOYAagonyPEGGYfamilyCOLLEENstinkNANCYtortureEBONYpeaceLEFT side ifUNPLEASANTorWHITE nameRIGHT side ifPLEASANTorBLACK name
24Implicit Associations Test LEFT side ifUNPLEASANTorBLACK nameRIGHT side ifPLEASANTorWHITE nameImplicit Associations TestLEFT side ifUNPLEASANTorWHITE nameRIGHT side ifPLEASANTorBLACK name
25Implicit Associations Associations like these are everywhereAge, Race, Gender, Political Affiliation, etc…They are pervasiveWe are usually unaware but they can influence judgment and behaviorCan we stop them?START: What do we learn from this demo?* Even in this day and age; even for those of us in this room and on this campus, the vast majority of whom I assume would say that they’re motivated to be fairminded and to avoid stereotypes and prejudice.* Simply being motivated not to be influenced by these not enough to ensure you’re now* More than just knee slapping, even if they don’t influence us all the time in all contexts.KEITH’S TURN
27Why are stereotypes pervasive? Stereotypes guide:What we seeWhat we rememberWhat we believeConclusions:Stereotypes are so pervasive because they are a byproduct of how our brains are designed.While categories simplify our world, they also create inaccuracies in our perceptions.Nonetheless, we use these exaggerated perceptions to guide our interactions.Stereotypes reinforce themselves in many ways.How we act towards othersHow we explain behavior
28Perceiver Perspective Confirmation BiasWe tend to see what we already believe (stereotypes)Particularly when behavior is ambiguousAttribution BiasWe ignore the role that the situation plays in shaping a person’s behavior, and instead blame their disposition (traits)Female athletes and Title IXCross-Race Recognition DeficitWe more easily confuse people who belong to racial outgroupsContributes to wrongful conviction/incarceration rates for minorities.
29Cross Race Recognition Deficit Keith MaddoxChip GidneyReg AdamsSam SommersJenniSarahK-MaddT-Pain
30The Target’s Perspective Attributional AmbiguityUncertainty about whether treatment (feedback) is based on group or personal attributesImplications for self-knowledgeUncertainty about aptitude and abilitiesStereotype ThreatDebilitating concern over confirming a negative group stereotype through one’s own behavior.Implications for performanceLeads to impaired performance on stereotype-relevant tasks.
32What can you do about it? Potential strategies Colorblindness? Suppression?Consciousness raising?Well, Sam has already suggested that colorblindness may not be a useful strategy.Suppression works in the very short term, but tends to have negative consequences in the long term.Affirmative action is another method – by acknowledging the pervasive impact of prejudice and infusing our hiring and selection practices with strategies to find those normally disadvantaged.The final strategy, consciousness raising, is the one that you’re currently engaged in.
33A CaveatRacism, Sexism, Heterosexism, Classism, Anti-Semitism, etc.“isms”1. An individual’s prejudicial attitudes, beliefs, and discrimination toward people of a given group.2. Institutional practices (even if not seemingly motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given group.Lack of wheelchair access to buildings?English exam for LPGA Tour?Night clubs with dress codes?
34Conclusion Making Implicit Processes Explicit Acknowledge that people are different, but;Recognize that stereotypes can cloud and exaggerate those differences, and;Strategize to minimize their impact on personal and institutional levels.I like to think of stereotypes as lenses through which we look at the world. But most of us don’t know that we’re looking through lenses. Once you know about them, you have a choice.Difference is not a bad thing, don’t be afraid to acknowledge it, however;Know that stereotypes can distort your view of differences, making them seem bigger than they are;Lift the lenses away from your eyes so that you can make more accurate judgments about others.What we’ve hope to accomplish with our presentation today is to lift the veil on the mental processes that allow stereotypes to influence our judgments, and begin to give you the power to lessen their impacts. Thank you.
36What are the effects of stereotypes? START: Explain original Steele & Aronson set up.END: This isn’t just about African-Americans (example of White men with math). It isn’t just about academic performance and race either. All sorts of performance types and other groups too (women and math; White men and sports; gay men and interacting with children).Give malleability example of Naliini’s work with Asian women.TRANSITION: So stereotypes affect our climate just by being out there. They also impact how we interact with others…Steele & Aronson (1995)