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Perception & Sensation.

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1 Perception & Sensation

2 Complementary Afterimage #1

3 Complementary AfterImage #2

4 Complementary AfterImage #3

5 Illusion Haze

6 Subjectively, perception is direct and simple
Subjectively, perception is direct and simple. For example we seem to immediately see and recognize the object on the left as a tower and the object on the right as a street. This is the case, even though the two forms are almost identical in terms of form, color, and hue. Why doe two perceptual patterns that are so much alike convey so radically different meanings in such a seemingly direct manner? In this session we want to try to achieve an understanding of how this can occur. More generally: How does perceptual stimulation produce thought and meaning? In trying to understand a complex matter, it is often useful to see how far one gets with very simple maybe even naive assumptions. Thus, let us try to build a device that is able to identify a well-defined set of objects, namely letters. We will use letters and words in much of the session as a sample case, but most of what is said holds for objects in general.

7 Top-down vs. Bottom-up Processing
So far, we have studied the flow of information from the world into the perceptual system (bottom-up processing). But there is an equally important influence of pre-existing knowledge on our eventual perception of things in the world (top-down processing). That is, our prior experiences and expectations have a very strong influence on the things we see. As a result, our perceptions of the world result from a combination of sensory information (data-driven) and pre-existing knowledge (concept-driven). for instance, we discussed how light energy strikes the photoreceptors, stimulates the retinal ganglion cells, which stimulate the cells in primary visual cortex...none of these descriptions acknowledge any impact of the observer’s knowledge on the process of perception...but there are very strong effects of this type. in this case, your perception of the identity of the middle letter is influenced by prior representations in your brain of the words that are portrayed. Even though these interpretations conflict with one another...you probably perceived the words effortlessly...This reveals the influence of top-down processing on your recognition of the middle letter.

8 Why are these words easy to read despite the splotches?
Top down activation... 30

9 Prior knowledge guides vision

10 Prior knowledge guides vision

11 Face Perception: Which one is Vanna?

12 Face Perception: Which one is Vanna?

13 Gestalt Grouping Principles
group nearby figures together

14 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Proximity
Objects near each other tend to be seen as a unit

15 Gestalt Grouping Principles
group figures that are similar

16 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Similarity
Objects similar to each other tend to be seen as a unit

17 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Similarity
Objects similar to each other tend to be seen as a unit

18 Gestalt Grouping Principles
Fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object

19 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Closure
Fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object But, doesn’t the white triangle look whiter than the background?

20 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Continuity
Objects that are connected by a smooth curve tend to be seen as a unit

21 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Common Movement
Objects moving in the same speed and at the same direction tend to be grouped The Hidden Bird Illusion THIS IS THE APPLET

22 Gestalt Grouping Principles: Common Movement
Which direction are the triangles pointing?

23 Who do you see?

24 What do you see?

25 How do we create a 3 dimensional world from 2 dimensions?
Depth Perception How do we create a 3 dimensional world from 2 dimensions?

26 Stereogram Cross eyes so that the left eye is looking at the right square and the right looking at the left Try ‘fixating’ on an imaginary point in front of the viewing screen at which point you will see three squares- left center and right. The center one will be the stereo image t

27 Relative Size

28 Perceived Size and Perceived Depth
To perceive the size of objects accurately we must also perceive their distance accurately. Thus, many visual illusions occur simply because a particular image lacks sufficient depth cues. Retina Pupil Image A B This figure shows that image size depends upon both object size and distance

29 The Size-Distance Problem
The Ames room is designed so that the monocular depth cues give the illusion that the two people are equally far away

30 (a) Müller-Lyer illusion
Other Size-Distance Illusions In each of these examples, the top and bottom lines are actually the same length. In each case the top line looks longer. Why? (a) Müller-Lyer illusion (b) Ponzo illusion

31 Muller-Lyer Illusion Perceptual psychologists have hypothesized that the top horizontal line looks longer because it also looks farther away. Specifically, the inward pointing arrows signify that the horizontal line is closest to you, and the outward pointing arrows signify the opposite case.

32 Ponzo Illusion Converging lines indicate that top line is farther away than bottom line

33 Another Size-Distance Illusion

34 Another Size-Distance Illusion

35 Linear Perspective

36 Texture Gradients The elements of a texture become smaller and smaller as they recede into the distance...another reliable depth cue.

37 Cues to Depth Perception
Texture Gradient

38 Cues to Depth Perception
Texture Gradient

39 Which Triangle is closer?

40 Relative Height horizon line
Objects closer to the horizon appear to be farther away...

41 Cues to Depth Perception
Relative Height

42 Size Constancy Cylinders at positions A and B are the same size even though their image sizes differ The depth cues such as linear perspective and texture help the visual system judge the size accurately Point A Point B

43 Shape Constancy It is hard to tell if the figure on the upper right is a trapezoid or a square slanted backward. If we add texture, the texture gradient helps us see that it is actually a square.

44 Attention Demos

45 The Stroop Effect, part 1 As fast as you can, read the names
of the colors

46 The Stroop Effect, part 2 As fast as you can, (don’t read the word) but read the name of the color of the word.

47 The Stroop Effect, part 2 As fast as you can, (don’t read the word) but read the name of the color of the word.

48 The Stroop Effect, part 2 As fast as you can, (don’t read the word) but read the name of the color of the word.

49 Attention as a Selector: Find the Green Scarf

50 Attention as a Selector: Find the Bald Man

51 Selection Based on Color is Easy

52 Selection Based on upright vs
upside down is not easy

53 Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory
The following is a demonstration that (a) detecting features is relatively automatic, and (b) that integrating multiple features together and identifying the object is more attention-demanding.

54 Slap your thigh when you
see the blue line.

55

56

57

58 This is called a “catch trial!!”
Have to make sure you are actually searching…

59

60 you might notice here that your reaction time wasn’t really any longer for this screen than for the last one, even though there are far more elements to search through in this screen... This suggests that the number of elements you have to search through does NOT have an effect on your ability to find a target of a certain color.

61 Detecting the blue line was pretty easy, right
Detecting the blue line was pretty easy, right? Is orientation also easy to detect? Slap your thigh when you see the horizontal line.

62

63

64 Identifying Integrated Features
Conjunction Search When targets are defined by: Combination of features (e.g., red AND horizontal) Spatial arrangements of features (e.g. black above white)

65 Slap your thigh when you see the bar that
is both horizontal AND blue

66

67

68

69 So, the conjunction of color and orientation does not pop out.
What about the spatial arrangement of a basic visual feature?

70 Slap your thigh when you find the black
square above the white square:

71

72

73 Another catch trial...

74 Can you attend to something without moving your eyes?

75 Stare at the cross +

76 Q X C + L M P H E

77 What were the letters that you saw?
+

78 Now, focus on the cross but pay attention to the right side.
+

79 F U O + D S W I N

80 What were the letters? +

81 Attending without moving eyes
Focus of attention does NOT depend on where your eyes are pointing. We can move our attention independently of our eyes. You can look one way and attend to something that is elsewhere. WHY? Attention amplifies our ability to sense information. Who has noticed that events seem to slow down when you’re in an accident? Perhaps there’s an expansion of time that occurs when you strongly attend to something?

82 “Selection Mechanism”
Attention as a “Selection Mechanism” What happens to stuff we don’t attend to?

83 + While looking at the center plus sign, attend to the yellow cross and report whether its vertical or horizontal bar is longer

84 Stare at the cross + Attend Here

85 +

86 Which was longer?

87 Stare at the cross + Attend Here

88 +

89 Which was longer?

90 Stare at the cross + Attend Here

91 stint

92 Which was longer? Who noticed the word “stint”???

93 + Visual Version of Experiment Task: Is this a word you find
generally positive? YES/NO. +

94 Fish

95 Mouse

96 Land

97 House

98 Rabbit

99 Lemon

100 Idea

101 Subjects have virtually no memory of the unattended objects in a visual version of the dichotic listening task. Attention is a gateway to memory. You will not consciously remember stuff that is not attended to. They did it with shapes superimposed on shapes…but the results are the same….subjects have essentially no memory for the unattended objects (even the one presented only 1 sec before the recognition test occurred. Subjects DID recognize general characteristics of the unattended figures like approximate size and color…similar to the listening tasks, where pitch was one of the unattended features that did make it through... The effect of inattention on form perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. Vol 7(2), Apr 1981, Abstract In 5 experiments (160 undergraduates) a state of inattention was achieved by having Ss selectively attend to 1 of 2 overlapping novel figures in a series of such overlapping figures. Recognition of form directly afterward was good for figures that had been attended to but was essentially nil for the unattended figures. Recognition failed to occur even if a familiar figure was in the unattended series and even if that figure was presented 1 sec before the test. It was also shown that certain general characteristics of the unattended figures other than form were recognized. The results are interpreted as indicating that attention is necessary for form perception, not merely for memory of form. It is suggested that a cognitive process of description constitutes the essence of form perception. Diverting attention eliminates the cognitive operation of describing the spatial relations that characterize a figure.

102 How Powerful is our ability to attend to something?
How powerful of a selector mechanism is attention?

103 Some Video Examples Your Task
Count the number of passes of the ball by the members on the White Team.

104 Attentional Deficits

105 Left Visual Neglect Inability or difficulty to attend to the left side of visual space or of an object. Caused by lesion in the right parietal lobe. . Have you ever wondered how they get all this brain damage data about damage to a specific part of the brain? It might seem like there is a constant stream of patients with damage to very precise regions of the brain….but common sense dictates that accidental head trauma is not so precise…. Let’s take a look at one method that is used to more precisely localize the regions that are critical to specific cognitive deficits...

106 Left visual neglect: difficulty attending to left side of visual space even though early visual processing is intact. Assoc. with damage to right parietal lobe. Neglect to process information present to left side.

107 Will only use right half of the paper.

108 Will only read right half of paragraph.

109 Line-bisection task Bisect: Draw vertical line through horizontal line.

110 Only copy right half of drawings.

111 Task -- Cross out every line.
Patients will also show a tendency to direct gaze rightward…but this does not account for their lack of awareness of left visual field. Neglect is observed even when gaze direction is controlled.

112 Memory Demos

113 Sensory Memory Demonstration
Focus on the cross +

114 Sensory Memory Demonstration
X M D N I F B Z

115 Sensory Memory Demonstration
What were all of the letters?

116 Sensory Memory Demonstration
Focus on the cross +

117 Sensory Memory Demonstration
Q U C L T J R M

118 Sensory Memory Demonstration
Report the letter that was where the arrow points

119 Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Demonstration
Examine this boat for a minute

120 Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Demonstration
Was the anchor closer to the front or to the center of the boat?

121 Chunking: An Example Remember these 19 numbers
Write them down when I’m finished

122 Chunking Chunk: a category of information that lets you group/organize underlying items. Here were the numbers: / Our short term memory capacity is 7 plus or minus 2 chunks of information.

123 Amnesia See the Jeremy video Remember the Clive video
caused by damage to hippocampus and/or surrounding areas See the Jeremy video Remember the Clive video Hippocampus

124 Which is the real penny? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)
(k) (l) (m) (n) (o)

125 Answer (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o)

126 Class Demonstration As fast as you can, unscramble the words on the sheet of paper. Turn the page over when you’re finished. Notes: This is a demonstration of conceptual priming. There are two sheets. Half the class gets one sheet; the remaining half gets the second sheet. It is important not to let the class know there are two different sheets. Tell the students they should complete the task as fast as possible. What happens: all students are given a list of scrambled words. Students merely have to unscramble the letters. One sheet contains scrambled words relating to flowers. The other sheet contains scrambled words relating to kitchen utensils. The priming word is the very last scrambled word: L T E P A. Those who received the list with flower words will likely write "P E T A L". Those who received the utensils list will likely write "P L A T E". The key point is that the response to the last word was primed by the words that appeared before it.

127 Class Demonstration PETAL PLATE
Raise your hand if you spelled the last word as PETAL Raise your hand if you spelled the last word as PLATE Notes: This is a demonstration of conceptual priming. There are two sheets. Half the class gets one sheet; the remaining half gets the second sheet. It is important not to let the class know there are two different sheets. Tell the students they should complete the task as fast as possible. What happens: all students are given a list of scrambled words. Students merely have to unscramble the letters. One sheet contains scrambled words relating to flowers. The other sheet contains scrambled words relating to kitchen utensils. The priming word is the very last scrambled word: L T E P A. Those who received the list with flower words will likely write "P E T A L". Those who received the utensils list will likely write "P L A T E". The key point is that the response to the last word was primed by the words that appeared before it.

128 Priming Example #2 F I N E K --> KNIFE K R O F --> FORK
There were two sets of scrambled words preceding the last one. One set was related to kitchen items. F I N E K --> KNIFE K R O F --> FORK P U C --> CUP E C U S A R --> SAUCER L T E P A --> PLATE All related to Notes: This is a demonstration of conceptual priming. There are two sheets. Half the class gets one sheet; the remaining half gets the second sheet. It is important not to let the class know there are two different sheets. Tell the students they should complete the task as fast as possible. What happens: all students are given a list of scrambled words. Students merely have to unscramble the letters. One sheet contains scrambled words relating to flowers. The other sheet contains scrambled words relating to kitchen utensils. The priming word is the very last scrambled word: L T E P A. Those who received the list with flower words will likely write "P E T A L". Those who received the utensils list will likely write "P L A T E". The key point is that the response to the last word was primed by the words that appeared before it.

129 Priming Example #2 NYPAS --> PANSY FELA --> LEAF
The other set was related to flowers. NYPAS --> PANSY FELA --> LEAF KTALS --> STALK LOBSOMS --> BLOSSOMS L T E P A --> PETAL All related to

130 Priming Example #2 Whether you deciphered LTEPA as “Plate” or as “Petal” was likely influenced by the preceding words. These preceding words primed (i.e,. activated) either Plate or Petal. Notes: This is a demonstration of conceptual priming. There are two sheets. Half the class gets one sheet; the remaining half gets the second sheet. It is important not to let the class know there are two different sheets. Tell the students they should complete the task as fast as possible. What happens: all students are given a list of scrambled words. Students merely have to unscramble the letters. One sheet contains scrambled words relating to flowers. The other sheet contains scrambled words relating to kitchen utensils. The priming word is the very last scrambled word: L T E P A. Those who received the list with flower words will likely write "P E T A L". Those who received the utensils list will likely write "P L A T E". The key point is that the response to the last word was primed by the words that appeared before it.

131

132 A 3 minute Task Spend the next 3 minutes writing down as many U.S. states as you can.

133 Face memory test

134 Face Memory Results 100 80 60 Percent Correct 40 20
Don’t Describe Face

135 Face Memory Results Why are people worse after describing the face?
100 80 Why are people worse after describing the face? 60 Percent Correct 40 20 Don’t Describe Face Describe Face

136 Social Demos

137 The Attribution Scale Task
Each row contains a pair of adjectives and a “Depends on the situation” response. I want you to rate George Bush. Put a CHECK (do not circle) next to the item that is most characteristic of George Bush.

138 While driving through a rural area near your home you are stopped by a county police officer who informs you that you have been clocked (with radar) at 38 miles per hours in a 25-mph zone. You believe this information to be accurate. After the policeman leaves, you inspect the citation and find that the details on the summons regarding weather, visibility, time, and location of violation are highly inaccurate. The citation informs you that you may either pay a $50 fine by mail without appearing in court or you must appear in municipal court within the next two weeks to contest the charge. Which option would you choose? pay fine (b) contest charge What % of the people in this class do you estimate would pay the fine? _______

139 Class results from last year
False Consensus: Tendency to see one’s own choices and opinions as more common than they are Class results from last year 47% said they would pay fine 53% said they would contest the charge They estimated that: _38_% would contest _62_% would pay They estimated that: _64_% would contest _36_% would pay

140 A Judgment Task All subjects perform a boring task for 1 hour, and are then asked to lie to the next subject and say that the experiment was fun and exciting. Subjects are paid either $1 or $20 to lie. Finally, all subjects privately rate how much they enjoyed the initial task. Question: Which subjects reported that they enjoyed the initial task more? Will the subjects paid $1 or those paid $20 rate the task as more enjoyable?

141 Measuring Implicit Stereotypes
The Implicit Association Test for more information:

142 Unpleasant Pleasant abuse crash filth murder sickness accident caress
freedom health love peace cheer

143 Old People Young People

144 LEFT for Unpleasant RIGHT for Pleasant murder love crash freedom peace
filth abuse caress cheer accident health sickness LEFT for Unpleasant RIGHT for Pleasant

145 LEFT for Old RIGHT for Young

146 LEFT for Unpleasant or Old RIGHT for Pleasant or Young cheer sickness
accident sickness cheer murder peace LEFT for Unpleasant or Old RIGHT for Pleasant or Young

147 LEFT for Young RIGHT for Old

148 LEFT for Unpleasant or Young RIGHT for Pleasant or Old love crash
filth abuse love health crash LEFT for Unpleasant or Young RIGHT for Pleasant or Old

149 Personality Demos

150 Social-Cognitive Perspective
External Locus of Control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate Internal Locus of Control the perception that one controls one’s own fate

151 You get very good grades in a course. I am a hard worker.
On a sheet of paper, write a series of numbers from 1 to 18. For each of the following questions, imagine the situation happening to you, even if it never has. Next, write down the alternative (either A or B) that you prefer. Always record an alternative, even if both are equally preferable. You get very good grades in a course. I am a hard worker. School work is simple. 2. You feel stronger and more energetic. This season of the year makes me feel better. I feel better when I exercise.

152 3. A salesperson is very unpleasant to you.
I am always polite, even to unpleasant people. I can be unpleasant at times. 4. You fail to get the promotion you want. I didn’t work as hard as I could have. The company suffered a loss and could not promote anybody. 5. You get picked to represent your neighborhood association at a dinner with the mayor. It was my turn to go. I showed great interest in going. 6. You read an article that contradicts your views. I don’t mind when people disagree with me. I never get angry. I always stay calm and collected.

153 7. A friend is avoiding you.
Once in a while I am mean to other people. Once in a while people are mean to me. 8. Your doctor tells you that despite her recommendations, you still eat too much salt. Salt is in everything -- you can’t avoid it. I don’t pay much attention to my diet. 9. A friend invites you to dinner. My friend feels lonely and wants some company. I make pleasant and interesting company. 10. You have a disagreement with a neighbor. Once in a while I may lose my temper and get angry. I never get angry. I always stay calm and collected.

154 11. Your spouse/friend says that you don’t share thoughts with him/her.
I share with my spouse/friend even my most personal and intimate thoughts. I sometimes have ideas that I do not like other people to know about. 12. Your boss criticizes you. He is a critical person. I am a poor worker. 13. You make a new friend. I am a nice person. The people that I meet are nice.

155 14. A friend who helped you when in need asks to borrow a large sum of money.
I am always eager to return a favor. Lending money to a friend can be a problem. 15. Your spouse/friend yells at you. I must have done something wrong to upset him/her. He/she has a quick temper. 16. Your friend is making a long argument that you want to comment on. I never interrupt others when they are talking. I sometimes interrupt others when they are talking.

156 17. You’ve recovered very quickly from the flue.
I have a good resistance because I take care of my health Fortunately, it was a minor flue. 18. You twist your shoulder in exercise class. The instructor pushed us too hard. I was not careful in exercise class.

157 For questions 1, 4, 7, 13, 15, and 17: give yourself a 1 if you selected A and a 0 if you selected B. [Alternative A corresponds to an internal locus of control] For questions 2, 5, 8, 9, 12, and 18: give yourself a 1 if you selected B and 0 if you selected A. [Alternative B corresponds to an internal locus of control] Now, add up your total number of points.

158 Raise your hand if your score is below 6
High scores --> associated with an internal locus of control Low scores --> associated with an external locus of control

159 Mental Disorders Demos

160 Dissociative Amnesia Marian and her brother were recently victims of a robbery. Marian was not injured, but her brother was killed when he resisted the robbers. Marian is unable to recall any details from the time of the accident until four days later.

161 Dissociative Amnesia Memory loss is the only symptom
Often selective memory loss surrounding traumatic events Key characteristic is that the person still knows their identity.

162 Dissociative Fugue Jay, a high school teacher in New York, disappeared three days after his wife unexpectedly left him for another man. Six months later, he was discovered tending bar in Miami Beach. Calling himself Martin, he claimed to have no recollection of his past life and insisted that he had never been married.

163 Dissociative Fugue Global amnesia with identity replacement
Person develops a new identity No recollection of former life If fugue wears off old identity recovers new identity is totally forgotten

164 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Norma has frequent memory gaps and cannot account for her whereabouts during certain periods of time. While being interviewed by a psychologist, she began speaking in a childlike voice. She claimed that her name was Donna and that she was only six years old. Moments later, she seemed to revert to her adult voice and had no memory of speaking in a childlike voice or claiming that her name was Donna.

165 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Originally known as “multiple personality disorder” 2 or more distinct personalities manifested by the same person at different times VERY rare Can vary in severity (see video)

166 Intelligence Demos

167 Are There Multiple Intelligences?
Savant Syndrome condition in which a person, otherwise limited in mental ability, has an amazing specific skill computation drawing

168 Savants George and Charles
Could instantly compute the day of week for any given date over a span of 80,000 years But, IQ between

169 Modern intelligence tests
The Stanford-Binet Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) = child’s mental age divided by child’s chronological age and then multiplied by 100 IQ = MA/CA x 100 (CA = Chronological age) E.g., IQ = 13/10 x 100 = 130 used widely in the US, not as much as previously

170 Stanford-Binet Scale The Intelligence Quotient (i.e., MA/CA) is absurd when applied to adults. Hence, the following joke:

171 Thinking Demos

172 Some True/False Questions
1. We notice evidence that contradicts our beliefs more readily than evidence that is consistent with them. 2. In general, people underestimate how much they really know. 3. Only humans seem capable of insight (I.e., the sudden realization of a problem’s solution).

173 Problem Write down the names of 6 U.S. cities that are WEST of San Diego. Here’s the kicker: each city must be in a different state (6 cities from 6 different states.)

174 Problem Write down the names of 6 U.S. cities that are WEST of San Diego. Reno is West of San Diego

175 Falling Object Problem

176 Spiral Tube Problem

177 Confirmation Bias Below are four cards. Each card has a letter on one side and a digit on the other side. You are to verify whether or not the following rule is true: If there is a vowel on one side, there is an even number on the other side. You should verify this rule by turning over 2 cards. Which cards do you choose? A 2 X 3

178 Verify Rule: If there is a vowel on one side, there is an even number on the other side.
2 X 3 Answer: A and 3 If there’s a vowel on the other side of the 3 card then the rule is dead Most people choose “A” and “2”. Why? Because of a confirmation bias.

179 Confirmation Bias People generally seek evidence that will confirm, not falsify, a hypothesis

180 It would seem, then that we stink at logic. But . . . .
IF A PERSON IS DRINKING BEER, THEN THE PERSON MUST BE OVER 21 YEARS OF AGE. Select the 2 cards that you definitely need to turn over to determine whether or not they are violating the rule. Beer 22 Coke 17

181 Solve problems and syllogisms by applying information to pre-existing schemas
More relevant = easier to solve The Bottom Line: People are not logic machines who can plug any problem into a logical formula

182 Representativeness Heuristic
Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. What is the probability that Linda is a….?

183 Representativeness Heuristic
Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. What is the probability that Linda is a Bank Teller? Write a number between 0 and 100

184 Representativeness Heuristic
Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.

185 Representativeness Heuristic
Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. What is the probability that Linda is a Feminist Bank Teller? Write a number between 0 and 100

186 Representativeness Heuristic
Time after time, people say that there’s a higher likelihood that Linda is a feminist bank teller than that she’s a bank teller. But this is impossible because: Feminist Bank Tellers are a sub-group of Bank Tellers.

187 Representativeness Heuristic
rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes However, it can cause people to generalize too broadly from single cases.

188 Availability Bias Is the letter “k” most likely to occur in the first position of a word or the third position? Answer: “k” is 2-3 times more likely to be in the third position Most people respond that “k” is more frequent in the first position. Why does this occur?

189 Availability Heuristic
Because it is easier to recall words starting with “k” , people overestimate the number of words starting with “k”

190 Which of the following are more frequent causes of death in the U.S.?
Rate how confident you are in your choice on a scale from 0 (guessing) to 100 (absolutely certain that your choice is correct). 1. All accidents or strokes? confidence rating? 5. Drowning or Leukemia? confidence rating? 2. Electrocution or asthma? confidence rating? 3. Homicide or diabetes? confidence rating? 4. Lightning or appendicitis? confidence rating?

191 Which of the following are more frequent causes of death in the U.S.?
1. All accidents (55,000) or strokes (102,000) 2. Electrocution (500) or asthma (920) 3. Homicide (9200) or diabetes (19,000) 4. Lightning (52) or appendicitis (440) 5. Drowning (3600) or Leukemia (7100)

192 Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common We tend to be overly influenced by events that come easily to mind

193 Language and Development

194 Critical Stage & Language
Genie spent her first 14 years confined to a small bedroom and weighed just 59 pounds when discovered. She never learned to speak in complete sentences.

195 Konrad Lorenz & Imprinting


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