Presentation on theme: "Classical Conditioning Review A young child who reaches out to pet a barking dog is bitten by the dog & cries. Every time she hears a dog bark, she whimpers."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Conditioning Review A young child who reaches out to pet a barking dog is bitten by the dog & cries. Every time she hears a dog bark, she whimpers. UCS-UCR-CS-CR-
Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning) Learning where a behavior is followed by a consequence (reward or punishment)
Thorndike’s Cats in a Puzzle Box Law of effect- behaviors followed by a positive consequence strengthens behavior & negative consequence weakens behavior
Skinner (cont.) Shaping (Acquisition Stage) – reinforce any behavior leading up to the desired behavior Cumulative Recorder- attached to the Skinner box and it graphs the organisms response rate Steep slope- fast response rate Steep slope- fast response rate Shallow slope- slow response rate Shallow slope- slow response rate
Consequences Reinforcement (R)- increases chance behavior will occur again Primary reinforcement- necessary for survival, such as food Primary reinforcement- necessary for survival, such as food Secondary reinforcement- anything else, such as money, praise, a sticker Secondary reinforcement- anything else, such as money, praise, a sticker Punishment (P)- decreases chance behavior will occur again
Types of Consequences RP Positive + Add pleasant stimulus to increase behavior Add pleasant stimulus to increase behavior Add unpleasant stimulus to decrease behavior Add unpleasant stimulus to decrease behavior Negative - Remove unpleasant stimulus to increase behavior Remove unpleasant stimulus to increase behavior Escape & Avoidance Learning Escape & Avoidance Learning Remove pleasant stimulus to decrease behavior Remove pleasant stimulus to decrease behavior
The Big Bang Theory- Positive Reinforcement
The Simpsons- Negative Reinforcement
Using Punishment to Discipline: Can have unwanted effects (anger, hostility, anxiety) Physical punishment leads to aggression Better to reinforce desirable behavior Behavior modification ( treatment approach, based on the principles of operant conditioning, that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones through positive or negative reinforcement/punishment) and Token economy (system emphasized reinforcing positive behavior by awarding "tokens" for meeting positive behavioral goals. Behavior modification ( treatment approach, based on the principles of operant conditioning, that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones through positive or negative reinforcement/punishment) and Token economy (system emphasized reinforcing positive behavior by awarding "tokens" for meeting positive behavioral goals.)
Guidelines to Effective Punishment Don’t delay Explain the punishment Use least severe punishment (minimize physical punishment) Follow through
Examples: 1. A rat presses a bar and receives a food pellet. 2. A teenager can’t use the car for a week because she stayed out past curfew. 3. You party all night and get an F. 4. You are caught speeding and are given a ticket by a police officer. 5. Every time the 2 year old uses the toilet his parents praise him.
Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement- behavior is always reinforced Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement- behavior is sometimes reinforced
Fixed- set amount Variable- random amount Ratio- Based on certain # of responses FR FR-15 (reinforcer every 15 th response) FR-15 (reinforcer every 15 th response) Paid by the job Paid by the jobVR VR-15 (reinforcer over an average of 15 responses, not every 15 VR-15 (reinforcer over an average of 15 responses, not every 15 Gambling Gambling Hardest to extinguish Hardest to extinguish Interval Based on time FI FI-15 (reinforcer after every 15 seconds if 1 correct response is made) FI-15 (reinforcer after every 15 seconds if 1 correct response is made) Paid by the hour Paid by the hourVI VI- 15 (reinforcer over an average interval of 15 seconds) VI- 15 (reinforcer over an average interval of 15 seconds) Pop quiz Pop quiz
The Premack Principle How do you find a reinforcer that will "work" with a particular individual? One technique is to observe what the individual chooses to do voluntarily. As a rule, preferred behaviors can be used to reinforce unpreferred behaviors. This is called the Premack principle after psychologist David Premack who proposed the rule. A formal statement of the Premack principle is as follows: high-probability behaviors (those performed frequently under conditions of free choice) can be used to reinforce low-probability behaviors.
Premack Principle Examples If a rat likes to run on a wheel, you can reinforce a bar-press by allowing it to run on its wheel only after a bar-press. If you have a hamster that always wants to escape from its cage, then you can reinforce the hamster for climbing onto your hand by offering your hand as a way to escape from the cage. The preferred behavior (escaping) is a reinforcer for the non- preferred behavior (climbing onto the hand of a human). This actually works. Parents sometimes use a variation of the Premack principle. If they want children to eat vegetables (sometimes a non- preferred behavior) they can make a rule that vegetables must be consumed before the children get to eat a desert (usually a preferred behavior). Similarly, children may be asked to do their homework (sometimes a non-preferred behavior) before watching TV or playing video games (usually a preferred behavior).
Examples: 1. Paid 10 dollars for every 20 puzzle solved 2. Doing 20 push ups to help stay fit 3. A strike in bowling 4. Surfer waiting for the perfect wave to ride in 5. Getting a pay check at the end of 2 weeks
Rules for Analyzing Examples to Determine if Operant Conditioning Occurred. The following questions can help in determining whether operant conditioning has occurred. a. What behavior in the example was increased or decreased? b. Was the behavior increased (if yes, the process has the be either positive or negative reinforcement), or decreased (if the behavior was decreased the process is either response cost or punishment). c. What was the consequence / stimulus that followed the behavior in the example? d. Was the consequence / stimulus added or removed? If added the process was either positive reinforcement or punishment. If it was subtracted, the process was either negative reinforcement or response cost.
Memory- How we retain information over time
Three Processes 1. Encoding- making mental representations of information 2. Storing- place info into mental storage 3. Retrieving- getting info later
Types of Memory 1. Short-Term/Work Memory a) Limited Duration (2-30 sec.) Maintenance rehearsal- repeating infoMaintenance rehearsal- repeating info b) Limited Capacity (7-8 items) Interference- new info pushes out oldInterference- new info pushes out old c) Chunking- way to increase amount of #s you can remember
Types of Memory 2. Long Term Memory- stores unlimited info for unlimited amount of time All memory can be retrieved but not always accurate All memory can be retrieved but not always accurate Memory TEST!!! Memory TEST!!!
False Memories Loftus’ Study: Implanting False Memories Gave adults 3 memories from their childhood (1 false) Gave adults 3 memories from their childhood (1 false) 29% remembered the false memory 29% remembered the false memory Ceci’s Study: False Memories in Children Children ages 3-6 read list of events & asked them which ones happened to them Children ages 3-6 read list of events & asked them which ones happened to them 34% said they experienced the fictitious event 34% said they experienced the fictitious event
Problems with Eyewitness Testimony: 1. Not accurate & reliable a) Own-race Bias b) State of Stress 2. Weak correlation between witness confidence & correct identification 3. Errors due to law enforcement asking misleading or biased questions a) Loftus’ Stop/Yield Sign Experiment 4. Jury’s perception of the eyewitness