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From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger

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1 From Caedmon to Caxton Thomas Honegger

2 db-thueringen.de/ content/top/ index.xml History of English www. db-thueringen.de/www. db-thueringen.de/

3 Richard II ( , reigned )

4 Richard II Richard II was the second son of Edward the Black Prince (who was the eldest son of Edward III). Richard II was the second son of Edward the Black Prince (who was the eldest son of Edward III). Richard’s elder brother Edward (*1364) died already 1371, so that he became heir to the English throne after the death of the Black Prince (1376). Richard’s elder brother Edward (*1364) died already 1371, so that he became heir to the English throne after the death of the Black Prince (1376). He became king after the death of Edward III in He became king after the death of Edward III in 1377.

5 Richard II Even though he was coming of age only in 1389, no Regent or Lord Protector was installed. Even though he was coming of age only in 1389, no Regent or Lord Protector was installed. Proved his courage when he confronted the revolting peasants in 1381 before London. Proved his courage when he confronted the revolting peasants in 1381 before London.

6 The Peasants’s Revolt 1381

7 Richard betrothed to Isabella (7 years old) of France (1396)

8 Froissart presents his book to Richard II

9 Geoffrey Chaucer (c ) ‘the father of English poetry’ (Dryden 1700)

10 Chaucer’s self-description He in the waast is shape as wel as I; This were a popet in an arm t’embrace For any womman, smal and fair of face. He semeth elvyssh by his contenance, For unto no wight dooth he daliaunce. He is in the waist as well-shaped as I am; this puppet would fit into the arms of any woman petite and pretty, to be embraced. Judging by his expression, he seems to come from another world, since he does not converse with anyone.

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12 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life born as son of John and Agnes Chaucer, wine merchants (vintners). Date of birth calculated from disposition made in 1386: ‘Geffray Chaucere esquier del age de xl ans et plus armeez par xxvii ans’ 1340 born as son of John and Agnes Chaucer, wine merchants (vintners). Date of birth calculated from disposition made in 1386: ‘Geffray Chaucere esquier del age de xl ans et plus armeez par xxvii ans’ Black Death 1349 => Chaucer’s parents inherit lands and houses from deceased relatives => Chaucer’s family well-to-do. Black Death 1349 => Chaucer’s parents inherit lands and houses from deceased relatives => Chaucer’s family well-to-do.

13 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life 2 Early years (no documentary evidence) probably spent in house of parents in London. Comes into contact with many foreign merchants and foreign languages. Early years (no documentary evidence) probably spent in house of parents in London. Comes into contact with many foreign merchants and foreign languages. Schooling: no evidence survives. Maybe St. Paul’s school. Schooling: no evidence survives. Maybe St. Paul’s school. Education: would be taught his prayers in English and the alphabet (hornbook) not long after learning to talk. Would learn to read and write, first training in Latin. Education: would be taught his prayers in English and the alphabet (hornbook) not long after learning to talk. Would learn to read and write, first training in Latin.

14 Horn books

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16 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life 3 Grammar school from age 7 onwards. Or parents teach him. Grammar school from age 7 onwards. Or parents teach him. Latin (reading, writing, speaking) Latin (reading, writing, speaking) Classics (Virgil, Ovid, Aesop) in form of excerpts (florilegia = anthologies) => shared common knowledge of a classical canon among educated people Classics (Virgil, Ovid, Aesop) in form of excerpts (florilegia = anthologies) => shared common knowledge of a classical canon among educated people 14th century education not enforced by state or society. 14th century education not enforced by state or society.

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18 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life 4 French - whether taught formally or not - of great importance. French - whether taught formally or not - of great importance. by 1370, Chaucer also knew Italian. by 1370, Chaucer also knew Italian earliest record mentioning Chaucer (as page): household account of the court of Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, wife of Lionel, son of Edward III. Account fragmentary ( ), survived in the binding for another book earliest record mentioning Chaucer (as page): household account of the court of Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, wife of Lionel, son of Edward III. Account fragmentary ( ), survived in the binding for another book.

19 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life 5 Pages: given board, lodging, clothes in exchange for service. ‘Education’ in the ways of polite society. Pages: given board, lodging, clothes in exchange for service. ‘Education’ in the ways of polite society. Chance to listen to/read works of literature (mainly French, but also Latin and some Italian [Dante]) Chance to listen to/read works of literature (mainly French, but also Latin and some Italian [Dante]) Meets Philippa Pan (?Roet?), elder sister (?) of Katherine de Roet, mistress and later wife of John of Gaunt (a son of Edward III and father of Henry IV Bolingbroke). Meets Philippa Pan (?Roet?), elder sister (?) of Katherine de Roet, mistress and later wife of John of Gaunt (a son of Edward III and father of Henry IV Bolingbroke).

20 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life yeoman; with Lionel in France; captured but ransomed 1 March 1360 for £ yeoman; with Lionel in France; captured but ransomed 1 March 1360 for £ 16. Speculations about time spent at Court of Inns and Court of Chancery (evidence of legal knowledge in his poems) Speculations about time spent at Court of Inns and Court of Chancery (evidence of legal knowledge in his poems) Septem artes liberales = humanities Septem artes liberales = humanities

21 Trivium (textual sciences) 1 Grammatica

22 Trivium (textual sciences) 2 Rethorica

23 Trivium (textual sciences) 3 Dialectica

24 Quadrivium (‘mathematical’ sciences) 1 Arithmetica

25 Quadrivium (‘mathematical’ sciences) 2 Musica

26 Quadrivium (‘mathematical’ sciences) 3 Geometria

27 Quadrivium (‘mathematical’ sciences) 4 Astronomia

28 The Heavenly Spheres Terra (with spheres of water, air and fire) Terra (with spheres of water, air and fire) Luna Luna Mercurius Mercurius Venus Venus Sol Sol Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter Saturnus Saturnus firmamentum firmamentum primum mobile primum mobile

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31 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life Parliament opened in English for the first time; English established as official language of law courts Parliament opened in English for the first time; English established as official language of law courts Chaucer marries Philippa Roet (attached to Constance of Castile => were often separated when travelling with their employers) 1365 Chaucer marries Philippa Roet (attached to Constance of Castile => were often separated when travelling with their employers) 1366 Father John Chaucer dies; mother remarries. Chaucer travels through Navarre. Secret mission? 1366 Father John Chaucer dies; mother remarries. Chaucer travels through Navarre. Secret mission?

32 Chaucer in Secret Mission ‘in eisdem secretis negotiis ipsius domini regis’ (on those same secret negotiations of the lord king himself; document of 1370) ‘in eisdem secretis negotiis ipsius domini regis’ (on those same secret negotiations of the lord king himself; document of 1370)

33 Chaucer in secret mission to the king?

34 Le Roman de la Rose late 1360s Chaucer translates all or some of Le Roman de la Rose as The Romaunt of the Rose. late 1360s Chaucer translates all or some of Le Roman de la Rose as The Romaunt of the Rose. Le Roman originally composed by Guillaume de Lorris (first 4,000 lines between ) and Jean de Meung (remaining 18,000 lines between ) Le Roman originally composed by Guillaume de Lorris (first 4,000 lines between ) and Jean de Meung (remaining 18,000 lines between ) Medieval bestseller with over 200 copies Medieval bestseller with over 200 copies

35 Le Roman de la Rose Allegorical protagonists: the Lover, Courtesy, God of Love, Hope, Pleasant Thoughts, Pleasant Looks, Pleasant Conversation, Fair Welcome, Reason, Jealousy, Evil Tongue, False Seeming etc. Allegorical protagonists: the Lover, Courtesy, God of Love, Hope, Pleasant Thoughts, Pleasant Looks, Pleasant Conversation, Fair Welcome, Reason, Jealousy, Evil Tongue, False Seeming etc.

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40 Christine de Pizan ( )

41 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life Chaucer esquire in the royal household, granted 20 marks annuity. His son Thomas born Chaucer esquire in the royal household, granted 20 marks annuity. His son Thomas born abroad on King’s service; death of Blanche, wife of John of Gaunt abroad on King’s service; death of Blanche, wife of John of Gaunt Chaucer writes The Book of the Duchess Chaucer writes The Book of the Duchess.

42 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life several times in France with John of Gaunt and on military campaigns several times in France with John of Gaunt and on military campaigns travels to Italy (Genoa and Florence) on diplomatic business. Possible first encounter with the poetry of Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarch travels to Italy (Genoa and Florence) on diplomatic business. Possible first encounter with the poetry of Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarch.

43 Dante Alighieri ( )

44 Francesco Petrarca ( )

45 Giovanni Boccaccio ( )

46 Boccaccio’s Influence Filostrato (1335): story of Troiolo who is in love with Criseida => Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde Filostrato (1335): story of Troiolo who is in love with Criseida => Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde Teseida ( ): story of Arcite and Palemone => Chaucer’s The Knight’s Tale Teseida ( ): story of Arcite and Palemone => Chaucer’s The Knight’s Tale Decamerone ( ): 100 novellas told during 10 days by 10 people who fled from the pest in Florence => ideas for Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales Decamerone ( ): 100 novellas told during 10 days by 10 people who fled from the pest in Florence => ideas for Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

47 A Medieval Literary Dream Team

48 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life Chaucer was granted a gallon of wine per day for life; rent-free life-long lease of property in Aldgate; controller of customs; 10 £ annuity from John of Gaunt Chaucer was granted a gallon of wine per day for life; rent-free life-long lease of property in Aldgate; controller of customs; 10 £ annuity from John of Gaunt death of Edward the Black Prince 1376 death of Edward the Black Prince again in France on King’s business again in France on King’s business

49 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life death of Edward III; Richard II king 1377 death of Edward III; Richard II king 1378 Great Schism (two popes elected). Chaucer in Milan; writes House of Fame; successfully petitions conversion for 1374 wine grant to be commuted to cash (20 marks) 1378 Great Schism (two popes elected). Chaucer in Milan; writes House of Fame; successfully petitions conversion for 1374 wine grant to be commuted to cash (20 marks)

50 Milan

51 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life Cecily Champaign (unsuccessfully) accuses Chaucer of rape (Lat. raptus); son Lewis born; writes Parliament of Foules and Palamon and Arcite (> Knight’s Tale) 1380 Cecily Champaign (unsuccessfully) accuses Chaucer of rape (Lat. raptus); son Lewis born; writes Parliament of Foules and Palamon and Arcite (> Knight’s Tale) 1381 death of Agnes Chaucer, his mother; peasants’ revolt; Troilus and Criseyde; Boece (translation of Boethius’ De Consolatione Philosphiae) 1381 death of Agnes Chaucer, his mother; peasants’ revolt; Troilus and Criseyde; Boece (translation of Boethius’ De Consolatione Philosphiae) 1382 controller of Wool and Petty Customs 1382 controller of Wool and Petty Customs

52 Chaucer reads to a courtly audience

53 Geoffrey Chaucer: A Life leaves London for Kent; member of peace commission in Kent = Justice of Peace leaves London for Kent; member of peace commission in Kent = Justice of Peace gives up lease of Aldgate property; MP for Kent (Knight of the Shire); testifies in a court case in which he describes himself as being more than 40 years old; resigns from Customs; Legend of Good Women gives up lease of Aldgate property; MP for Kent (Knight of the Shire); testifies in a court case in which he describes himself as being more than 40 years old; resigns from Customs; Legend of Good Women death of Philippa, his wife; Chaucer in Calais 1387 death of Philippa, his wife; Chaucer in Calais

54 Philippa Chaucer née Roet

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56 The Canterbury Tales c Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales. c Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales. Basic idea: a group of pilgrims (29 plus the host, who acts as ‘guide’) travel from London (Southwark) to Canterbury (shrine of St Thomas à Beckett). To pass the time, they agree on a story-telling competition. Each pilgrim tells two stories on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back to London (cf. Decamerone). Basic idea: a group of pilgrims (29 plus the host, who acts as ‘guide’) travel from London (Southwark) to Canterbury (shrine of St Thomas à Beckett). To pass the time, they agree on a story-telling competition. Each pilgrim tells two stories on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back to London (cf. Decamerone).

57 Canterbury Cathedral

58 Canterbury Pilgrims

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60 List of Pilgrims bellatores: knight, squire, yeoman bellatores: knight, squire, yeoman oratores: prioress, second nun, nun’s priest, monk, friar oratores: prioress, second nun, nun’s priest, monk, friar laboratores/middle class: merchant, clerk, man of law, franklin, 5 guildsmen, cook, shipman, physician, wife of bath laboratores/middle class: merchant, clerk, man of law, franklin, 5 guildsmen, cook, shipman, physician, wife of bath ideal personae: parson & plowman ideal personae: parson & plowman ‘churls’: miller, manciple, reeve, summoner, pardoner, Chaucer himself ‘churls’: miller, manciple, reeve, summoner, pardoner, Chaucer himself

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66 The Canterbury Tales Theoretical number of tales: 29 x 4 = 116 Theoretical number of tales: 29 x 4 = 116 Extant number of tales: 24 (one of which fragmentary) Extant number of tales: 24 (one of which fragmentary) dramatic principle: tales are chosen so that they match their tellers; tales and tellers interact with each other => break with strict hierarchy dramatic principle: tales are chosen so that they match their tellers; tales and tellers interact with each other => break with strict hierarchy Knight’s Tale – Miller’s Tale – Reeve’s Tale Knight’s Tale – Miller’s Tale – Reeve’s Tale Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale – Clerk’s Tale – Merchant’s Tale – Franklin’s Tale Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale – Clerk’s Tale – Merchant’s Tale – Franklin’s Tale


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