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Partitioning Palestine History 300 / September 29, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Partitioning Palestine History 300 / September 29, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Partitioning Palestine History 300 / September 29, 2009

2 The “Balfour Declaration” (Nov. 2, 1917) Dear Lord Rothschild, I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. “His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, Arthur James Balfour

3 Excerpts from The British White Paper (1939) His Majesty's Government… now declare unequivocally that it is not part of their policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State. They would indeed regard it as contrary to their obligations to the Arabs under the Mandate, as well as to the assurances which have been given to the Arab people in the past, that the Arab population of Palestine should be made the subjects of a Jewish State against their will. The objective of His Majesty's Government is the establishment within 10 years of an independent Palestine State in such treaty relations with the United Kingdom as will provide satisfactorily for the commercial and strategic requirements of both countries in the future. The independent State should be one in which Arabs and Jews share government in such a way as to ensure that the essential interests of each community are safeguarded.

4 The bombing of the King David Hotel (July 22, 1946)

5 Further attacks: the Jerusalem rail station; a British officer’s lounge

6 The “Exodus” steams toward Haifa (July 1947)

7 UN Secretary General Trygve Lie (1896-1968)

8 Construction of the UN Headquarters (ca. 1947)

9 Temporary UN meeting quarters in Lake Pleasant, NY

10 The UN Partition Plan (UNGA Resolution 181, Nov. 29, 1947)

11 Excerpts from statement by Warren Austin, U.S. representative to the UNSC (March 19, 1948) There seems to be general agreement that the plan cannot now be implemented by peaceful means. From what has been said in the Security Council and in consultations among the several members of the Security Council, it is clear that the Security Council is not prepared to go ahead with efforts to implement this plan in the existing situation. The announced determination of the mandatory power to terminate the mandate on 15 May 1948, if carried out by the United Kingdom, would result, in the light of information now available, in chaos, heavy fighting and much loss of life in Palestine. The United Nations cannot permit such a result. My Government believes that a temporary trusteeship for Palestine should be established under the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations to maintain the peace and to afford the Jews and Arabs of Palestine, who must live together, further opportunity to reach an agreement regarding the future government of that country.

12 Statement by President Truman, March 25, 1948 (excerpts) The United States has proposed to the Security Council a temporary United Nations trusteeship for Palestine to provide a government to keep the peace. Such trusteeship was proposed only after we had exhausted every effort to find a way to carry out partition by peaceful means. Trusteeship is not proposed as a substitute for the partition plan but as an effort to fill the vacuum soon to be created by the termination of the mandate on May 15. The trusteeship does not prejudice the character of the final political settlement. It would establish the conditions of order which are essential to a peaceful solution. If we are to avert tragedy in Palestine, an immediate truce must be reached between the Arabs and Jews of that country. I am instructing Ambassador Austin to urge upon the Security Council in the strongest terms that representatives of the Arabs and Jews be called at once to the council table to arrange such a truce.

13 UNSC Resolution 43 (April 1, 1948) The Security Council, In the exercise of its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, 1.Notes the increasing violence and disorder in Palestine and believes that it is of the utmost urgency that an immediate truce be effected in Palestine; 2.Calls upon the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the Arab Higher Committee to make representative available to the Security Council for the purpose of arranging a truce between the Arab and Jewish communities of Palestine, and emphasizes the heavy responsibility which would fall upon any party failing to observe such a truce; 3.Calls upon Arab and Jewish armed groups in Palestine to cease acts of violence immediately.

14 The proclamation of Israel (May 14, 1948)

15 President Truman with Chaim Weizmann (May 25, 1948)

16 The First Arab-Israeli War (1948-49)

17 Count Folke Bernadotte (1895-1948) Progress Report, Sept. 16, 1948 The following seven basic premises form the basis for my conclusions: (a) Peace must return to Palestine and every feasible measure should be taken to ensure that hostilities will not be resumed and that harmonious relations between Arab and Jew will ultimately be restored. (b) A Jewish State called Israel exists in Palestine and there are no sound reasons for assuming that it will not continue to do so. (c) The boundaries of this new State must finally be fixed either by formal agreement between the parties concerned or failing that, by the United Nations.

18 (d) Adherence to the principle of geographical homogeneity and integration, which should be the major objective of the boundary arrangements, should apply equally to Arab and Jewish territories, whose frontiers should not therefore, be rigidly controlled by the territorial arrangements envisaged in the resolution of 29 November. (e) The right of innocent people, uprooted from their homes by the present terror and ravages of war, to return to their homes, should be affirmed and made effective, with assurance of adequate compensation for the property of those who may choose not to return. (f) The City of Jerusalem, because of its religious and international significance and the complexity of interest involved, should be accorded special and separate treatment. (g) International responsibility should be expressed where desirable and necessary in the form of inter-national guarantees, as a means of allaying existing fears, and particularly with regard to boundaries and human rights.

19 Ralph Bunche (1904-1971)

20 The “Green Line” (armistice of 1949)

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