U1 Schedule Thursday, 1/15 and Tuesday, 1/20: Lecture Wednesday, 1/21: Instructional Assistance 6:30-8:00 p.m., Wood Hall, 1 st Floor Lounge Thursday,

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U1 Schedule Thursday, 1/15 and Tuesday, 1/20: Lecture Wednesday, 1/21: Instructional Assistance 6:30-8:00 p.m., Wood Hall, 1 st Floor Lounge Thursday, 1/22: Exam 1 1 Just a reminder: This and future ppts can be downloaded from alycedickinson.com

Unit Corrections Study objectives 20 & 21 –These are still “fair” game for the exam if I cover them, however, –The pages referenced for these two study objectives are not in the course pack –If I cover them, all the material you will need will be in the lecture and ppt 2

3 Unit 1 Overview Main emphasis: Respondent behavioral relations and respondent conditioning – Many think respondent conditioning is not very important in everyday human affairs, but Chance argues that point –Respondent conditioning = Pavlovian conditioning = classical conditioning Review of basic concepts (Pietras, Malott) Start with basic definitions, abbreviations, diagramming conventions

4 Respondent and Operant Relations Respondent Operant S ---> R R--->Sc 1.US ---> UR SD or S ∆ :R--->Sc 2. CS ---> CR MO:SD or S ∆ :R--->Sc SO2: Diagramming Conventions A.Respondent: S ----> R B.Operant: R ----> Sc C.Operant with SD: SD:R ----> Sc (SR/Sr) D.Operant with S ∆ : S ∆ :R ----> Sc (Ext) Note: NOT SD ---> R ---> Sc, but SD:R --->Sc (Malott, box diagrams, arrow denotes temporal relations, but conventionally, contingent relation, If-then)

5 SO 3: Stimulus/Stimuli Definition (note bold face in SOs!) – An energy change that affects the organism through its receptors Examples of stimuli –Respondent: USs and CSs –Operant: SDs, S ∆ s, all consequences Some stimuli for humans (not for the exam; see study objectives for additional examples) –Visual: Energy change: electromagnetic wavelengths, photons Receptor: photoreceptors in eyes –Auditory: Energy change: vibration of molecules Receptor: phonoreceptors in ears (hear, taste, touch, see, feel: examples - physical energy change/receptors)

6 SO4A. When analyzing the behavior of a particular individual, environmental events are always classified from the perspective of the behaver. (often mix up stimuli and responses: 2 important points about stimuli)

7 Stimulus vs. Behavior In the following examples of operant relations, should we classify the consequence for the R as a behavior or a stimulus? A. R (drink hot liquid)-->Pain (burn tongue) A. R (answers lecture question correctly)--> Praise A. R (answers lecture question correctly)-->OK gesture A. R (rat presses lever)-->Light comes on B. R (baby coos)-->Parent strokes baby’s arm

8 SO4B An energy change cannot be a stimulus for an organism if: 1.The organism does not have a receptor that can detect it (across species differences) 1.The organism’s receptor is damaged and thus cannot detect it (within species differences) In #2, the energy change can be a stimulus for one person or organism of the same species, but not for the organism with the damaged receptor (important to stress energy change that affects the receptors, cont)

9 SO4B A. Dog whistles: Across species example Phonoreceptors of dogs can detect faster vibrations of molecules than can the phonoreceptors of humans. High tones, while energy changes, can be stimuli for dogs but not for humans because humans do not have receptors that can detect them. B.X-rays: Across species example X-rays are energy changes, but they cannot be stimuli for humans because humans do not have receptors that can detect them. C.Damaged phonoreceptors: Within species example Hunter’s phonoreceptors damaged due to firing rifles close to his/her ear so high tones do not affect his/her receptors (problem for veterans as well) high tones can be stimuli for others, but not for this hunter. (Dolphins, bats, whales: biosonar – murky water, dark; Note, all are energy changes! Refer to def of stimulus)

SO4B – Another Example The Mosquito : Box that emits a shrill piercing noise Used to prevent loitering by teens The sound is audible to teens and young adults, but typically not adults (older than early 20s) Can be heard by animals and babies, but is only aversive to children older than 12 – “teen-repellent” Teens say: “It’s horrible, loud, and irritating. It’s this screeching sound that you have to get away from or it will drive you crazy.” Why? Heard by teens and young adults who still have sensitive hair cells in their inner ears, hair cells that don’t develop until teen years –Energy change is the same but differences are due to the receptors (not yet developed, deterioration due to age) 10

11 SO 5: Behavior/Response (Dead man’s - person’s - rule) 1.Movement of the skeletal muscles (striped, striated) Muscles attached to bones and move bones when they contract: fingers, arms, legs, back, vocal app. 2.Movement of the smooth muscles Located in blood vessels - face flushes or blanches Around hair follicles - hair stands up on end In eye - pupils constrict or dilate Digestive, reproductive, respiratory system, cardiac muscle 3.Secretion of the glands Sweat glands, salivary glands, lachrimal glands, adrenal gland (also electrical conductivity/activity of skin, gsr, but not requiring this)

12 SO 6: Types of Behaviors and Relationship to Type of Conditioning Relationship to operant and respondent relations and conditioning (typically) –Movement of skeletal muscles: Operant – (a) Movement of the smooth muscles & (b) Secretion of the glands*: Respondent Commonality? Behaviors controlled by autonomic nervous system (*also GSR, but not requiring this: clearly exceptions - next slide)

13 SO 7 Exception US (pain to hand/foot) ---> UR (hand/foot withdrawal) Why is this an exception? The relation is a respondent relation, but the response is movement of the skeletal muscles (rather than movement of the smooth muscles or glandular secretion). It is incorrect to say that the hand/foot withdrawal is operant behavior? Why?

14 SO 8 Behavior vs. Behavioral Relations: What is the Difference? Behavior –Movement of the skeletal muscles, movement of the smooth muscles, and glandular secretion Behavioral Relations –Behavior plus causal stimuli, e.g., Respondent: US  UR CS  CR Operant:R  SR or Sr SD: R  SR or Sr MO:SD:R  SR or Sr (examples next)

15 SO 8 Behavior vs. Behavioral Relations: Examples Respondent: –Behavior: salivation –Relation: US (food in mouth)  UR (salivation) –Relation: CS (tone)  CR (salivation) Operant: –Behavior: Press power button on TV remote –Relation: R (press button)  Sr (TV comes on) –Behavior: rat presses a lever –Relation: MO (food dep): SD (light on): R (press lever)  SR (food) (not NS does not elicit a response)

16 SO 8 Behavior vs. Behavioral Relations: Why is the distinction important?* A behavior, such as crying, can be caused by very different variables - it can also have multiple causes. (onions, operant crying, both - pain, Sr) –US (fumes from peeling onions)  UR (crying) –R (woman crying)  Sr (please don’t cry, I didn’t mean it) –US (pain)  UR (crying) R (crying)  Sr (poor baby, hug) Respondent relations: tendency to call a behavior rather than a relation inherited –US (food in mouth)  UR (salivation) –CS (tone)  CR (salivation) In order to understand and change behavior we must know what is causing it (*this slide, NFE)

17 SO11 Unconditioned Respondent Relations Examples in study objectives; for the exam learn the ones numbered 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, & 11 1.US (light increase) --> UR (pupil of eye constricts) 2.US (light decrease) --> UR (pupil of eye dilates) 3.US (touch to eye/chemical irritant) --> UR (lachrimal gland secretion) 4.US (irritation to nasal mucosa) --> UR (sneezing) 5.US (irritation to throat) --> UR (cough) 6.US (low temperature) --> UR (shivering, surface vasoconstriction) 7.US (high temperature) --> UR (sweating, surface vasodilation) 8.US (cold/fright) --> UR (hair stands on end) 9.US (food in mouth) --> UR (salivation) 10.US (bad food in stomach) --> UR (vomiting) 11.(NEXT SLIDE - EMOTIONS) (Skipping to SO11: focus on respondent this unit. On exam, if US, give UR; if UR, give US, or whole relation)

18 SOs 11 &12: Emotions ALL emotions (joy, anger, sadness) consist of: A collection of respondent behaviors elicited by a stimulus that is (1) painful, (2) very intense, or (3) very unusual and together is called the activation syndrome. USUR: Activation Syndrome PainHeart rate increase Very intense stimulusAdrenaline secretion Very unusual/surprisingRelease of sugar into blood stream Blood vessel constriction Galvanic skin response (pain is always a stimulus, never a response!; note respondent – do not leave this out of the definition - it is a critical part - emotions are not operant behavior)

19 SO 13: Lower-order and Higher- order Respondent Conditioning Definition: Respondent Conditioning (not for the exam): A neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a US or CS that elicits a response, and the NS becomes a CS that elicits the same response. (Conditioning, making new CS->CR relations) Qualifier: The response is the same in the sense that it involves the same muscle movement or glandular secretion but may differ in intensity.

20 SO13: Lower-order Respondent Conditioning Diagram Four parts to the diagram! NS does NOT elicit R (either as a UR or CR) US ----------> UR NS/US -----> UR (NS and US paired several times) CS ----------> CR Critical Features: US always elicits a UR (never an “R” or “CR”) NS always precedes US to ensure conditioning Pairing is symbolized with / (Not an arrow) NS becomes a CS when it elicits the response CS always elicits a CR (never an “R” or “UR”) CR must be the same response as the UR CS must occasionally be paired with US (exam: not ask critical features)

21 SO 13A: Pavlov’s Original Study Example of Lower-order Conditioning NS (tone) does not elicit R (salivation) US (meat powder in mouth)----->UR (salivation) NS (tone)/US (meat powder in mouth)----->UR (salivation) CS (tone)---->CR (salivation) Review of Critical Features: US always elicits a UR (never an “R” or “CR”) NS always precedes US to insure conditioning Pairing is symbolized with / NS becomes a CS when it elicits the response CS always elicits a CR (never an “R” or “UR”) CR must be the same response as the UR CS must occasionally be paired with US (Russian Physiologist)

22 Skip to SO 14: Respondent Extinction NS (tone) does not elicit R (salivation) US (meat powder in mouth) ---> UR (salivation) NS/US (meat powder in mouth ---> UR (salivation) CS (tone) ---> CR (salivation) How would you respondently extinguish the CR (the salivation response) to the CS (the tone)? Repeatedly present the CS (the tone) without the US (meat powder in the mouth) Why is “present the CS” wrong? (without repeatedly) (Problem with “pair” instead of “present”; Extinguish vs. extinct, next slide) Skipping 13C-E for now

23 Extinguish vs. extinct

24 SO 13C: Higher-order Respondent Conditioning Lower-Order NS does not elicit R US ---> UR NS/US ---> UR CS ---> CR Higher-Order NS does not elicit R CS 1 ---> CR 1 NS/CS 1 ---> CR 1 CS 2 ---> CR 2 SO 13D: Difference in Words In lower-order conditioning, the NS is repeatedly paired with a US while in higher-order conditioning the NS is repeatedly paired with a CS.

25 SO 13C: Example of Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning Pavlov’s Lower-Order Conditioning Study NS (tone) does not elicit R (salivation) US (meat powder in mouth) ---> UR (salivation) NS/US (meat powder in mouth ---> UR (salivation) CS (tone) ---> CR (salivation) Higher-order Respondent Conditioning NS (bright orange light) does not elicit R (salivation) CS 1 (tone) ---> CR 1 (salivation) NS (bright orange light)/CS 1 (tone) ---> CR 1 (salivation) CS 2 (orange light) ---> CR 2 (salivation) (cool examples in text related to advertising; George Clooney, Jack Sparrow/Johnny Depp, lovable Geico gecco; beer commercials; cars with models; on exam, CS1 - second diagram)

26 SO 13E: Watson & Raynor, Little Albert Respondent Conditioning of Emotions NS (white rat) does not elicit R (fear, startle) US (loud noise)--->UR (fear, startle) /NS (white rat)US (loud noise)--->UR (fear, startle) CS (white rat)--->CR (fear, startle) REVIEW SO 14: Extinction of CR (emotions vs. simple reflexes, all emotions were genetic, 11th, diagram this study, question, not answer, process of extinction often forms the basis for treatment of most phobias; article 4 yrs ago – who Was little Albert and what happened to him? American Psychologist) How would you extinguish the fear, startle response?

27 SO 15 Assume, as actually happened, that Watson and Raynor did not extinguish the fear, startle response. Also, assume Little Albert has not had any contact with white rats for 1 year after he left Watson and Raynor. If you showed him a rat, would he exhibit a fear, startle response?

28 SO 16: Counterconditioning Counterconditioning is NOT the same thing as extinction. Extinction: The CR is eliminated by repeatedly presenting the CS without pairing it again with the US or CS1 Counterconditioning: Not only is the CR eliminated, but it is replaced with an incompatible response. The CS that elicits the CR is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits an incompatible response. (Extinction is not the same as elimination, specific process, counterconditioning usually faster; also used to treat phobias)

29 SO 16: Peter’s Original Conditioning: Same as Little Albert’s NS (rabbit) does not elicit R (fear, startle) US (loud noise)--->UR (fear, startle) /NS (rabbit)US (loud noise)--->UR (fear, startle) CS (rabbit)--->CR (fear, startle) (NFE, but important so that you understand the counterconditioning, same except rabbit)

30 SO16: Counterconditioning Peter’s Fear, Startle Response NS (rabbit) does not elicit R (pleasant emotions, salivation) US (milk, cookies)--->UR (pleasant emotions, salivation) NS (rabbit)/US (milk, cookies)--->UR (pl. emtns, sal.) CS (rabbit)--->CR (pleasant emotions, salivation) Note the first line of the diagram. Important!! (SO16A, diagram; SO16B, conditioned rabbit to elicit unpleasant emotions; stress NS first line, extinction embedded)

31 SOs 17-18: Staats & Staats To date: Respondent conditioning can account for emotions to stimuli that are paired with a US, e.g., Little Albert’s fear/startle response Series of three studies showing how emotions to things/people/ethnic groups that we have never had contact with can be respondently conditioned Nonsense syllables Names of males (e.g., Tom, Bill) Nationalities (e.g., German, Dutch, Swedish) (higher order conditioning, increasing applied relevance and implications)

32 Staats & Staats Study Participants were college students Slides with names of nationalities shown on a screen Words said to participants, which they repeated while slides were shown Purpose? How visual learning affected auditory learning Ps told they would be asked to recall as many of the words as possible.

33 1. Slides saying Dutch were paired with words that elicited pleasant emotional reactions NS (Dutch)/CS1 (joy, happiness)  CR1 (plsnt emotions) 2. Slides saying Swedish were paired with words that elicited negative emotional reactions NS (Swedish)/CS1 (death, pain)  CR1 (unplsnt emotions 3. (Control) Slides saying German, Italian, French were paired with words that did not elicit emotional reactions NS (German)/NS (words)  No emotional reaction Staats and Staats Study, cont. NS = nationalities (German, Dutch, Swedish) CS1 = words that elicited emotional reactions (joy, happiness) NS = words that did not elicit emotional reactions (book, table) (SO17: full diagrams later)

34 Staats & Staats Dependent Variable College students rated the extent to which the nationalities were pleasant or unpleasant on a 7-point rating scale. They rated: Dutch as very positive/pleasant Swedish as very negative/unpleasant German, Italian, and French as neutral. When asked why they rated them that way, the students could not tell the experimenters. That is, the conditioning occurred completely without their awareness.

35 NS (German) does not elicit R (any emotions) NS (table, chair) ---> No R (no emotions) NS (German)/NS (table, chair) ---> No R (no emotions) NS (German) ---> No R (no emotions) NS (Dutch) does not elicit R (pleasant emotions) CS1 (joy, gift) ---> CR1 (pleasant emotions) NS (Dutch)/CS1 (joy, gift) ---> CR1 (pleasant emotions) CS2 (Dutch) ---> CR2 (pleasant emotions) NS (Swedish) does not elicit R (neg. emotions) CS1 (death, pain) ---> CR1 (neg. emotions) NS (Swedish)/CS1 (death, pain) ---> CR1 (neg. emotions) CS2 (Swedish) ---> CR2 (neg. emotions) (note: last is not really respondent conding; must begin with nationalities that are NS, not Dutch here) SO 17: Diagrams for Staats and Staats

36 SO 18: Staats & Staats Wrap-up The DV consisted of the extent to which students rated the nationalities as pleasant/unpleasant on a 7- point rating scale. Was this the CR? Why or why not? Chance called the words “neutral words,” “positive words,” and “negative words.” This is NOT good behavioral terminology. What is wrong with this way of describing the words? (not in study objectives, but fair game for the exam) (Stimulus vs. response)

37 Staats & Staats Implications If you grow up in a social environment where international or minority groups are always described in negative terms, you are going to develop negative emotional reactions to those groups, even if you have not had any contact with them. If Italians are always paired with “gangsters,” “mafia,” “Jersey Shore,” if females are described as “inferior,” if Jews are described as “sly” and “shrewd,” if Arabs and Muslims are always described as “terrorists,” if homosexuals are always described as “immoral,” etc., you can develop negative reactions to those groups.

38 SO 19: Pavlov’s Study Counterconditioning: Dogs and Masochists NS (shock) does not elicit R (salivation) US (meat powder in mouth)----->UR (salivation) NS (shock)/US (meat powder in mouth)----->UR (salivation) CS (shock)---->CR (salivation) (dogs acted as if they “liked” the shock, shock did not elicit normal Rs after conditioning, Chance - not refer to this as counterconditioning, not always going to happen - factors??)

39 SO 20: Respondent Conditioning of Allergic Reactions* NS (shape, color, smell of rose) does not elicit R (allergic reaction) CS (shape, color, smell of rose)  CR (allergic reaction) (How could an artificial rose come to cause an allergic reaction? Is the person really suffering or just being “psychosomatic?” and a hypochondriac?); No different than how the sight and smell of food come to elicit salivation * NFE, unless I add it in lecture US (allergen)  UR (allergic reaction) NS (shape, color, smell of rose)/US (allergen)  UR (allergies) CS (artificial rose, scented rose candle)  CR (allergic reaction) Thus:

SO 21: Respondent Conditioning and Drug Overdoses* Shepard Siegal’s work on respondent conditioning can help explain why: –People develop drug tolerances over time and have to take more drugs to get the same “high” –Drug addicts who get “clean” at a rehab facility often have such a high relapse rate –Some people die from overdoses when they take the same amount of drugs in a different place/setting 40 * NFE unless I add it in lecture

SO 21, cont. 41 US (addictive drugs)  1. Physiological effects due to the drug + 2. Physiological compensatory responses to “offset” the effects of the drugs When an NS is paired with the US (dope) the responses that become conditioned are the 2 nd set of responses, not the first.

SO 21, cont. 42 NS (drug paraphernalia) do not elicit R (compensatory Rs) (stimuli in apt., friends) US (drug)  UR (compensatory Rs after initial drug effects) NS/US (drug)  UR (compensatory Rs) CS (drug stuff, apt., friends)  CR (compensatory Rs)

SO 21: Drug Tolerance 43 1.CS (drug stuff, apt., friends)  CR (compensatory Rs) 1. Now, US (dope)  UR (drug effects) But, the compensatory Rs have already been elicited by the CSs in the environment, thus the effects of the drug are not as great So, a person needs more and more of the drug to get the same “high” And, remember, respondent conditioning doesn’t happen all at once, so the tolerance develops gradually as the CSs come to elicit the CRs (gathered at the typical place with the “usual suspects” to do some dope)

SO 21, cont: Drug Overdoses 44 Now, what is going to happen if a person shoots up in a completely new place/setting? 1.CSs (drug stuff)  CRs (compensatory Rs) But, there are not as many CSs so the compensatory Rs will be a lot weaker, not as strong counteraction 2.Take dope, same amount:

SO 21, cont: Drug Relapse Why did returning Vietnam vets who got “clean” at rehab have such a low recidivism rate in comparison to the average recidivism rate? Why is there such a high recidivism rate when individuals get clean then return home? Siegel’s story of a drug addict who got clean and then experienced full-fledged withdrawal symptoms when he crossed the GW Bridge, returning to NYC 45

SO 21, cont: Drug Relapse The compensatory responses are also what is commonly referred to as “withdrawal symptoms” They create “cravings” for the drugs if elicited in the drug’s absence So, if CSs elicit the compensatory responses then individuals will have a strong tendency to do drugs to relieve those compensatory responses (withdrawal symptoms) 46

SO 21, cont: Drug Relapse Former drug addict returning to NYC CSs (GW Bridge, NYC skyline, etc.)  CRs (comp Rs) People who get clean and return home CSs (streets, home, friends, etc.)  CRs (comp Rs) In contrast to: Clean Vietnam vets who returned to their home No or few CSs (all related to Vietnam and fellow soldiers) Therefore, no or only mild withdrawal symptoms 47 What important point about CSs  CRs and respondent extinction do the first two illustrate? (last slide on this – next slide, term “elicit”)

48 The End Questions? Instructional Assistance Hours: Wednesday, 1/21, 6:30-8:00 p.m. Wood Hall Lounge, First Floor Jessica is in charge! Email addresses for TAs are in the syllabus ppt is posted on my web page: alycedickinson.com *ppt slides testing elicit, evoke, and emit follow

49 SO22 Examples: Is elicit used correctly? When the temperature is cold, a person elicits a shivering response. The SD (a tone) elicited the behavior of turning in a circle by the pigeon. The CS (a tone) elicited the CR (salivation). Pressing the lever elicited the reinforcer of food. In lower order conditioning, the NS elicits the US.

50 SO22 Examples: Is evoke used correctly? When the temperature is cold, a person evokes a shivering response. The SD (a tone) evoked the behavior of turning in a circle by the pigeon. The CS (a tone) evoked the CR (salivation). Pressing the lever evoked the reinforcer of food. In lower order conditioning, the NS evokes the US.

51 SO22 Examples: Is emit used correctly? The rat emitted a lever press when the SD (a light) came on. When the temperature is cold, a person emits a shivering response as a UR. The SD (a tone) emitted the behavior of turning in a circle by the pigeon. The CS (a tone) emitted the CR (salivation). In lower order conditioning, the NS emitted the US.

Answers for slides 48-50 See SO22 for reasons Slide 48 A. No B. No C. Yes D. No E. No Slide 49 A. No B. Yes C. Yes D. No E. No Slide 50 A. Yes B. No C. No D. No E. No 52 Note: neither I nor my TAs will simply give you the answers. We will ask you for your answers and your reasons.

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