Presentation on theme: "Measuring Implicit Attitude of Mono-polar Concepts by A Paper-and-Pencil Test Kazuo Mori, Rika Imada, & Kosuke Fukunaka （ Shinshu University ） The SARMAC."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring Implicit Attitude of Mono-polar Concepts by A Paper-and-Pencil Test Kazuo Mori, Rika Imada, & Kosuke Fukunaka （ Shinshu University ） The SARMAC VI Poster Presentation January 6, 2005
Implicit Association Test Greenwald et al. (1998) found that there were about 100 to 200 ms longer latencies for noncompatible combinations (e.g., blacks and pleasant) than for compatible combinations (e.g., blacks and unpleasant). or GoodBad or
Drawbacks of IAT a) The IAT requires sophisticated equipment. A simpler way is needed to collect massive data easily. b) The IAT can access bi-polar concepts only. A different way is needed to access mono-polar concepts.
The FUMIE Test for Measuring Implicit Associations The major points of modification. ・ Marking ○× on printed words. →Easy to administer. ・ Measuring performance speed instead of reaction time. →Capable to administer in group. ・ Using category words rather than category members. →Capable to access mono-polar concepts. Filtering Unconscious Matching of Implicit Emotions A loyalty test “FUMIE ( 踏み絵 )” means “loyalty test” in Japanese.
Bi-polar version of the FUMIE Test Mark ○ on pleasant words and “black/white” Mark × on unpleasant words and “white/black” In a half minute. IAS (Implicit Association Score) =(blackYES:whiteNO) － (blackNO:whiteYES) angelwhite hairblack hair danger vitality
An example application of the FUMIE Test: Bi-polar targets (Mori, 2004) “Black hair” is more positively associated than “white hair” only in elderly people. “Sambo” is more negatively associated than “Heidi” across the age groups. “Black people” is more negatively associated than “white people” especially by the adults. Targets Hair People Sambo Adults (N=52) Undergrads (N=49) Junior High (N=47) Implicit Association Scores
Validity: Correlation with the IAT Participants 40 undergraduates and 40 senior citizens (60+ years old) Procedure Taking both FUMIE Test and IAT Results r =.32 ( t (78) = 2.98, p<.01) The PPIAT by Lemm et al. (2002) : r =.37, N=70, p<.01 The BFP by Olson & Fazio (2003): β=-.28, t (40) =2.03, p=.04
Test-retest Reliability of the FUMIE Test Participants 68 undergraduates Procedure Taking the FUMIE test twice with a week interval Results r =.30 (t (66) = 2.55, p<.02) φ =.41 (p<.01) 1st PositiveNegativeTotal 2nd Positive639 Negative94554 Total154863 81.0% showed the same tendency.
F-1 Test: Mono-polar Targets Can be Assessed Mark ○ on pleasant words and “Target” on odd lines Mark × on unpleasant words and “Target” on even lines In 20 seconds for each line. IAS =(Average on Target ○ lines) - (Average on Target × lines) hope death target peace love abuse target poison pleasure grief stink target lucky ・・・・・・・ victory target hatred target murder honest target loyal sickness assault target death ・・・・・ accident freedom target laughter crash honor target murder happy target abuse love ・・・・ divorce grief target heaven caress target disaster target poison lucky honest target ・・・・・ gentle target assault abuse target happy peach target cheer target friend sickness ・・・・・・ 12 lines printed on the test sheet, 10 lines actually used, and the last 8 lines used for calculating the IAS. ○○○○○○ ○ ○○ ○○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ×××× × ×× ×× × ××× × ○ ○
An example application of the F-1 Test Although the bi-polar FUMIE Test showed the relative preference of whites over blacks among Japanese students, the mono-polar F-1 Test revealed that they had positive associations to both whites and blacks. N=34(undergraduates), N=33(high school students) IAS for WhitesIAS for Blacks Apparent IAS in Bi-polar Tests Average IAS in 30 sec
Reliability of the F-1 Test Participants 34 undergraduates Procedure Test-retest 2 week interval Results r =.47 (t (32) = 3.03, p<.01) Participants 33 high school students Procedure Inter-task correlation Results r =.56 (t (31) = 3.77, p<.01) Study 1: Study 2:
●Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. K. L. (1998). Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480. ●Lemm, K., & Sattler, D.N., Khan, S., Mitchell, R. A. & Dahl, J. (February, 2002). Reliability and validity of a paper-based Implicit Association Test. Poster presented at the annual convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Savannah, GA. ●Mori, K. (2004). A Paper-format Group Performance Test for Measuring the Implicit Association of Target Concepts, Manuscript submitted to Japanese Psychological Research (under review). ●Olson, M. A. & Fazio, R. H. (2003), Relations Between Implicit Measures of Prejudice: What Are We Measuring? Psychological Science, 14, 636-639. References Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (Grant No.16653055). We would like to express our thanks to all the participants who voluntarily participated in this research. They were informed that the tests would reveal their implicit attitudes and that they could stop participating anytime they wanted to do so. Akitoshi Uchida contributed to the development of the F-1 Test sheet. Some parts of this research were conducted by Hiromi Ikegami, and Hisayo Yoneda, whom we would thank for granting permission to use the data collected. The present authors are solely responsible for the interpretation of the results.
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